The Drosophila lymph gland is a hematopoietic organ in which the maintenance of hematopoietic progenitor cell fate relies on intrinsic factors and extensive interaction with cells within a microenvironment. The posterior signaling center (PSC) is required for maintaining the balance between progenitors and their differentiation into mature hemocytes. Moreover, some factors from the progenitors cell-autonomously control blood cell differentiation. Here, we show that Jumeau (Jumu), a member of the forkhead (Fkh) transcription factor family, controls hemocyte differentiation of lymph gland through multiple regulatory mechanisms. Jumu maintains the proper differentiation of prohemocytes by cell-autonomously regulating the expression of Col in medullary zone and by non-cell-autonomously preventing the generation of expanded PSC cells. Jumu can also cell-autonomously control the proliferation of PSC cells through positive regulation of dMyc expression. We also show that a deficiency of jumu throughout the lymph gland can induce the differentiation of lamellocytes via activating Toll signaling.
- Li Hua Jin
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Utpal Banerjee, University of California, Los Angeles, United States
© 2017, Hao & Jin
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Axon degeneration contributes to the disruption of neuronal circuit function in diseased and injured nervous systems. Severed axons degenerate following the activation of an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway, which culminates in the activation of SARM1 in mammals to execute the pathological depletion of the metabolite NAD+. SARM1 NADase activity is activated by the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). In mammals, keeping NMN levels low potently preserves axons after injury. However, it remains unclear whether NMN is also a key mediator of axon degeneration and dSarm activation in flies. Here, we demonstrate that lowering NMN levels in Drosophila through the expression of a newly generated prokaryotic NMN-Deamidase (NMN-D) preserves severed axons for months and keeps them circuit-integrated for weeks. NMN-D alters the NAD+ metabolic flux by lowering NMN, while NAD+ remains unchanged in vivo. Increased NMN synthesis, by the expression of mouse nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (mNAMPT), leads to faster axon degeneration after injury. We also show that NMN-induced activation of dSarm mediates axon degeneration in vivo. Finally, NMN-D delays neurodegeneration caused by loss of the sole NMN-consuming and NAD+-synthesizing enzyme dNmnat. Our results reveal a critical role for NMN in neurodegeneration in the fly, which extends beyond axonal injury. The potent neuroprotection by reducing NMN levels is similar to the interference with other essential mediators of axon degeneration in Drosophila.
Mutations in the microtubule (MT)-binding protein doublecortin (DCX) or in the MT-based molecular motor dynein result in lissencephaly. However, a functional link between DCX and dynein has not been defined. Here, we demonstrate that DCX negatively regulates dynein-mediated retrograde transport in neurons from Dcx-/y or Dcx-/y;Dclk1-/- mice by reducing dynein's association with MTs and by disrupting the composition of the dynein motor complex. Previous work showed an increased binding of the adaptor protein C-Jun-amino-terminal kinase-interacting protein 3 (JIP3) to dynein in the absence of DCX. Using purified components, we demonstrate that JIP3 forms an active motor complex with dynein and its cofactor dynactin with two dyneins per complex. DCX competes with the binding of the second dynein, resulting in a velocity reduction of the complex. We conclude that DCX negatively regulates dynein-mediated retrograde transport through two critical interactions by regulating dynein binding to MTs and by regulating the composition of the dynein motor complex.