The lysosome plays an important role in maintaining cellular nutrient homeostasis. Regulation of nutrient storage can occur by the ubiquitination of certain transporters that are then sorted into the lysosome lumen for degradation. To better understand the underlying mechanism of this process, we performed genetic screens to identify components of the sorting machinery required for vacuole membrane protein degradation. These screens uncovered genes that encode a ubiquitin ligase complex, components of the PtdIns 3-kinase complex, and the ESCRT machinery. We developed a novel ubiquitination system, Rapamycin Induced Degradation (RapiDeg), to test the sorting defects caused by these mutants. These tests revealed that ubiquitinated vacuole membrane proteins recruit ESCRTs to the vacuole surface, where they mediate cargo sorting and direct cargo delivery into the vacuole lumen. Our findings demonstrate that the ESCRTs can function at both the late endosome and the vacuole membrane to mediate cargo sorting and intra-luminal vesicle formation.
- Scott D Emr
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Randy Schekman, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, United States
© 2017, Zhu et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Profilin-1 (PFN1) is a cytoskeletal protein that regulates the dynamics of actin and microtubule assembly. Thus, PFN1 is essential for the normal division, motility, and morphology of cells. Unfortunately, conventional fusion and direct labeling strategies compromise different facets of PFN1 function. As a consequence, the only methods used to determine known PFN1 functions have been indirect and often deduced in cell-free biochemical assays. We engineered and characterized two genetically encoded versions of tagged PFN1 that behave identical to each other and the tag-free protein. In biochemical assays purified proteins bind to phosphoinositide lipids, catalyze nucleotide exchange on actin monomers, stimulate formin-mediated actin filament assembly, and bound tubulin dimers (kD = 1.89 µM) to impact microtubule dynamics. In PFN1-deficient mammalian cells, Halo-PFN1 or mApple-PFN1 (mAp-PEN1) restored morphological and cytoskeletal functions. Titrations of self-labeling Halo-ligands were used to visualize molecules of PFN1. This approach combined with specific function-disrupting point-mutants (Y6D and R88E) revealed PFN1 bound to microtubules in live cells. Cells expressing the ALS-associated G118V disease variant did not associate with actin filaments or microtubules. Thus, these tagged PFN1s are reliable tools for studying the dynamic interactions of PFN1 with actin or microtubules in vitro as well as in important cell processes or disease-states.
Nedd4/Rsp5 family E3 ligases mediate numerous cellular processes, many of which require the E3 ligase to interact with PY-motif containing adaptor proteins. Several Arrestin-Related Trafficking adaptors (ARTs) of Rsp5 were self-ubiquitinated for activation, but the regulation mechanism remains elusive. Remarkably, we demonstrate that Art1, Art4, and Art5 undergo K63 linked di-Ubiquitination by Rsp5. This modification enhances the PM recruitment of Rsp5 by Art1 or Art5 upon substrate induction, required for cargo protein ubiquitination. In agreement with these observations, we find that di-ubiquitin strengthens the interaction between the Pombe orthologs of Rsp5 and Art1, Pub1 and Any1. Further, we discover that the HECT domain exosite protects the K63 linked di-Ubiquitin on the adaptors from cleavage by the deubiquitination enzyme Ubp2. Together, our study uncovers a novel ubiquitination modification implemented by Rsp5 adaptor proteins, underscoring the regulatory mechanism of how adaptor proteins control the recruitment and activity of Rsp5 for the turnover of membrane proteins.