Malaria transmission relies on the production of gametes following ingestion by a mosquito. Here, we show that Ca2+-dependent protein kinase 4 controls three processes essential to progress from a single haploid microgametocyte to the release of eight flagellated microgametes in Plasmodium berghei. A myristoylated isoform is activated by Ca2+ to initiate a first genome replication within twenty seconds of activation. This role is mediated by a protein of the SAPS-domain family involved in S-phase entry. At the same time, CDPK4 is required for the assembly of the subsequent mitotic spindle and to phosphorylate a microtubule-associated protein important for mitotic spindle formation. Finally, a non-myristoylated isoform is essential to complete cytokinesis by activating motility of the male flagellum. This role has been linked to phosphorylation of an uncharacterised flagellar protein. Altogether, this study reveals how a kinase integrates and transduces multiple signals to control key cell-cycle transitions during Plasmodium gametogenesis.
CDPK4 is a pleiotropic regulator controlling the atypical Plasmodium cell cycle during mosquito transmissionPublicly available at the EMBl-EBI Pride Archive (accession no: PXD005884).
- Mathieu Brochet
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All animal experiments were conducted with the authorization Number (GE/82/15 and GE/41/17) according to the guidelines and regulations issued by the Swiss Federal Veterinary Office.
- Elena Levashina, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Germany
© 2017, Fang et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Megakaryocytes (MKs) continuously produce platelets to support hemostasis and form a niche for hematopoietic stem cell maintenance in the bone marrow. MKs are also involved in inflammatory responses; however, the mechanism remains poorly understood. Using single-cell sequencing, we identified a CXCR4 highly expressed MK subpopulation, which exhibited both MK-specific and immune characteristics. CXCR4high MKs interacted with myeloid cells to promote their migration and stimulate the bacterial phagocytosis of macrophages and neutrophils by producing TNFα and IL-6. CXCR4high MKs were also capable of phagocytosis, processing, and presenting antigens to activate T cells. Furthermore, CXCR4high MKs also egressed circulation and infiltrated into the spleen, liver, and lung upon bacterial infection. Ablation of MKs suppressed the innate immune response and T cell activation to impair the anti-bacterial effects in mice under the Listeria monocytogenes challenge. Using hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell lineage-tracing mouse lines, we show that CXCR4high MKs were generated from infection-induced emergency megakaryopoiesis in response to bacterial infection. Overall, we identify the CXCR4high MKs, which regulate host-defense immune response against bacterial infection.
Deciphering mechanisms controlling SNARE localization within the Golgi complex is crucial to understanding protein trafficking patterns within the secretory pathway. SNAREs are also thought to prime coatomer protein I (COPI) assembly to ensure incorporation of these essential cargoes into vesicles, but the regulation of these events is poorly understood. Here, we report roles for ubiquitin recognition by COPI in SNARE trafficking and in stabilizing interactions between Arf, COPI, and Golgi SNAREs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ability of COPI to bind ubiquitin, but not the dilysine motif, through its N-terminal WD repeat domain of β′-COP or through an unrelated ubiquitin-binding domain is essential for the proper localization of Golgi SNAREs Bet1 and Gos1. We find that COPI, the ArfGAP Glo3, and multiple Golgi SNAREs are ubiquitinated. Notably, the binding of Arf and COPI to Gos1 is markedly enhanced by ubiquitination of these components. Glo3 is proposed to prime COPI–SNARE interactions; however, Glo3 is not enriched in the ubiquitin-stabilized SNARE–Arf–COPI complex but is instead enriched with COPI complexes that lack SNAREs. These results support a new model for how posttranslational modifications drive COPI priming events crucial for Golgi SNARE localization.