Antibodies are critical components of the human adaptive immune system, providing versatile scaffolds to display diverse antigen binding surfaces. Nevertheless, most antibodies have similar architectures, with the variable immunoglobulin domains of the heavy and light chain each providing three hypervariable loops, which are varied to generate diversity. The recent identification of a novel class of antibody in humans from malaria endemic regions of Africa was therefore surprising as one hypervariable loop contains the entire collagen-binding domain of human LAIR1. Here, we present the structure of the Fab fragment of such an antibody. We show that its antigen-binding site has adopted an architecture that positions LAIR1, while itself being occluded. This therefore represents an novel means of antigen recognition, in which the Fab fragment of an antibody acts as an adaptor, linking a human protein insert with antigen binding potential to the constant antibody regions which mediate immune cell recruitment.
- Fu-Lien Hsieh
- Matthew K Higgins
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Pamela J Bjorkman, California Institute of Technology, United States
© 2017, Hsieh & Higgins
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Periodontitis, one of the most common non-communicable diseases, is characterized by chronic oral inflammation and uncontrolled tooth supporting alveolar bone resorption. Its underlying mechanism to initiate aberrant oral barrier immunity has yet to be delineated. Here, we report a unique fibroblast subpopulation activated to guide oral inflammation (AG fibroblasts) identified in a single-cell RNA sequencing gingival cell atlas constructed from the mouse periodontitis models. AG fibroblasts localized beneath the gingival epithelium and in the cervical periodontal ligament responded to the ligature placement and to the discrete topical application of Toll-like receptor stimulants to mouse maxillary tissue. The upregulated chemokines and ligands of AG fibroblasts linked to the putative receptors of neutrophils in the early stages of periodontitis. In the established chronic inflammation, neutrophils, together with AG fibroblasts, appeared to induce type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) that were the primary source of interleukin-17 cytokines. The comparative analysis of Rag2-/- and Rag2-/-Il2rg-/- mice suggested that ILC3 contributed to the cervical alveolar bone resorption interfacing the gingival inflammation. We propose the AG fibroblast–neutrophil–ILC3 axis as a previously unrecognized mechanism which could be involved in the complex interplay between oral barrier immune cells contributing to pathological inflammation in periodontitis.
Dendritic cells (DCs), the key antigen-presenting cells, are primary regulators of immune responses. Transcriptional regulation of DC development had been one of the major research interests in DC biology, however, the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms during DC development remains unclear. Here, we report that Histone deacetylase 3 (Hdac3), an important epigenetic regulator, is highly expressed in pDCs, and its deficiency profoundly impaired the development of pDCs. Significant disturbance of homeostasis of hematopoietic progenitors was also observed in HDAC3-deficient mice, manifested by altered cell numbers of these progenitors and defective differentiation potentials for pDCs. Using the in vitro Flt3L supplemented DC culture system, we further demonstrated that HDAC3 was required for the differentiation of pDCs from progenitors at all developmental stages. Mechanistically, HDAC3 deficiency resulted in enhanced expression of cDC1-associated genes, owing to markedly elevated H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac) at these gene sites in BM pDCs. In contrast, the expression of pDC-associated genes was significantly downregulated, leading to defective pDC differentiation.