1. Neuroscience
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Infants are superior in implicit crossmodal learning and use other learning mechanisms than adults

  1. Sophie Rohlf  Is a corresponding author
  2. Boukje Habets
  3. Marco von Frieling
  4. Brigitte Röder
  1. University of Hamburg, Germany
  2. University of Bielefeld, Germany
Research Article
Cite this article as: eLife 2017;6:e28166 doi: 10.7554/eLife.28166
6 figures, 4 tables and 1 additional file

Figures

Grand average ERPs of Experiment 1a.

(A) ERPs to the three conditions (‘Frequent standard stimuli’, ‘Rare recombined stimuli’, ‘Rare deviant stimuli’) are superimposed for the electrode clusters F and FC, and the electrodes Fz and FCZ. The analyzed time epochs are marked in blue (200–420 ms) and red (420–1000 ms). (B) The topographical distribution of the difference between ‘Rare deviant stimuli’ minus ‘Frequent standard stimuli’ and ‘Rare recombined stimuli’ minus ‘Frequent standard stimuli’ for the first and second time window.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.28166.003
Grand average ERPs of Experiment 1b.

(A) ERPs to the three conditions (‘Frequent standard stimuli’, ‘Rare recombined stimuli’, ‘Rare deviant stimuli’) are superimposed for the electrode clusters F and FC, and the electrodes FCz and Cz. The analyzed time epochs are marked in blue (180–220 ms) and red (420–1000 ms). (B) The topographical distribution of the difference between ‘Rare deviant stimuli’ minus ‘Frequent standard stimuli’ for the first and second time window.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.28166.004
Grand average ERPs of Experiment 2a.

(A) ERPs to the three conditions (‘Frequent standard stimuli’, ‘Rare recombined stimuli’, ‘Rare deviant stimuli’) are superimposed for the electrode clusters F and FC, and the electrodes Fz and FCZ. The analyzed time epochs are marked in blue (80–160 ms) and red (250–850 ms). (B) The topographical distribution of the difference between ‘Rare deviant stimuli’ minus ‘Frequent standard stimuli’ for the first and second time window.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.28166.006
Grand average ERPs of Experiment 2b.

(A) ERPs to the three conditions (‘Frequent standard stimuli’, ‘Rare recombined stimuli’, ‘Rare deviant stimuli’) are superimposed for the electrode clusters F and FC, and the electrodes Fz and FCZ. The analyzed time epochs are marked in blue (80–160 ms) and red (250–850 ms). (B) The topographical distribution of the difference ‘Rare deviant stimuli’ minus ‘Frequent standard stimuli’ and ‘Rare recombined stimuli’ minus ‘Frequent standard stimuli’ for the first and second time window.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.28166.007
Electrode placement for experiment 1a.

The grey electrodes were included in the statistical analyses. Clusters are indicated by black connecting lines and were named according to their location along the anterior-posterior axis.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.28166.010
Electrode placement for Experiment 2a and 2b; the grey electrodes were included in the statistical analyses.

Clusters are indicated by black connecting lines and were named according to their location along the anterior-posterior axis.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.28166.012

Tables

Table 1
Mean (±SEM) of reaction times (in ms), hit rates (in %), misses (in %), and false alarms (in %) to the target stimuli of Experiment 2a and Experiment 2b.
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.28166.005
RT (ms)Hits (%)Misses (%)False alarms (%)
Experiment 2a391 ± 17.599.4 ± 0.30.34 ± 0.180.63 ± 0.25
Experiment 2b535 ± 27.596.6 ± 1.63.4 ± 1.615.55 ± 6.95
Table 2
Summary of the main results and topographical distributions of the two effects of interest.

(a) ‘Rare deviant stimuli’ minus ‘Frequent standard stimuli’ and (b) ‘Rare recombined stimuli’ minus ‘Frequent Standard stimuli’) in Experiment 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b. Electrodes and electrode clusters with significant differences between the experimental conditions are marked with black asterisks, comparisons with no significant differences are indicated by n.s..

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.28166.008
Early time windowLate time window
Rare deviant - Standard stimuliRare recombined - Standard stimuliRare deviant - Standard stimuliRare recombined- Standard stimuli
Experiment 1a (Infants)

200 – 420 ms
n.s.
420 – 1000 ms

420 – 1000 ms
Experiment 1b (Adults)

180 – 220 ms
n.s.
250 – 1000 ms
n.s.
Experiment 2a (Adults)

80 – 160 ms
n.s.
250 – 850 ms
n.s.
Experiment 2b (Adults)

80 – 160 ms
n.s.
250 – 850 ms

250 – 850 ms
Table 3
Experimental design of Experiment 1a and Experiment 1b.
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.28166.009
StimuliProportionCondition (number of trials)
Auditory 1 – Visual 1 (A1V1)
Auditory 2 – Visual 2 (A2V2)
0.350.35}0.70Frequent standard stimuli (210)
Auditory 1 – Visual 2 (A1V2)
Auditory 2 – Visual 1 (A2V2)
0.100.10}0.20Rare recombined stimuli (60)
Auditory 3 – Visual 3 (A3V3)0.10 }0.10Rare deviant stimuli (30)
Table 4
Experimental design of (A) Experiment 2a and (B) Experiment 2b.
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.28166.011
AStimuliProportionCondition (number of trials)
Auditory 1 – Visual 1 (A1V1)
Auditory 2 – Visual 2 (A2V2)
0.300.30}0.60
Frequent standard stimuli (720)
Auditory 1 – Visual 2 (A1V2)
Auditory 2 – Visual 1 (A2V2
0.100.10}0.20Rare recombined stimuli (240)
Auditory 3 – Visual 3 (A3V3)0.10 }0.10Rare deviant stimuli (120)
Visual 40.10 }0.10Unimodal target stimuli (120)
BStimuliProportionCondition (number of trials)
Auditory 1 – Visual 1 (A1V1)
Auditory 2 – Visual 2 (A2V2)
0.350.35}0.70
Frequent standard stimuli (840)
Auditory 1 – Visual 2 (A1V2)
Auditory 2 – Visual 1 (A2V2
0.10}0.100.10}0.10Rare recombined stimuli (120)/
Target stimuli (120)
Auditory 3 – Visual 3 (A3V3)0.10 }0.10Rare deviant stimuli (120)

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