CFTR, the chloride channel mutated in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, is opened by ATP binding to two cytosolic nucleotide binding domains (NBDs), but pore-domain mutations may also impair gating. ATP-bound NBDs dimerize occluding two nucleotides at interfacial binding sites; one site hydrolyzes ATP, the other is inactive. The pore opens upon tightening, and closes upon disengagement, of the catalytic site following ATP hydrolysis. Extent, timing, and role of non-catalytic-site movements are unknown. Here we exploit equilibrium gating of a hydrolysis-deficient mutant and apply F value analysis to compare timing of opening-associated movements at multiple locations, from the cytoplasmic ATP sites to the extracellular surface. Marked asynchrony of motion in the two ATP sites reveals their distinct roles in channel gating. The results clarify the molecular mechanisms of functional cross-talk between canonical and degenerate ATP sites in asymmetric ABC proteins, and of the gating defects caused by two common CF mutations.
- László Csanády
- László Csanády
- László Csanády
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols of Semmelweis University (last approved 06-30-2016, expiration 06-30-2021).
- Kenton J Swartz, National Institutes of Health, United States
© 2017, Sorum et al.
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Phosphorylation and acetylation of sarcomeric proteins are important for fine-tuning myocardial contractility. Here, we used bottom-up proteomics and label-free quantification to identify novel post-translational modifications (PTMs) on β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) in normal and failing human heart tissues. We report six acetylated lysines and two phosphorylated residues: K34-Ac, K58-Ac, S210-P, K213-Ac, T215-P, K429-Ac, K951-Ac, and K1195-Ac. K951-Ac was significantly reduced in both ischemic and nonischemic failing hearts compared to nondiseased hearts. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that K951-Ac may impact stability of thick filament tail interactions and ultimately myosin head positioning. K58-Ac altered the solvent-exposed SH3 domain surface – known for protein–protein interactions – but did not appreciably change motor domain conformation or dynamics under conditions studied. Together, K213-Ac/T215-P altered loop 1’s structure and dynamics – known to regulate ADP-release, ATPase activity, and sliding velocity. Our study suggests that β-MHC acetylation levels may be influenced more by the PTM location than the type of heart disease since less protected acetylation sites are reduced in both heart failure groups. Additionally, these PTMs have potential to modulate interactions between β-MHC and other regulatory sarcomeric proteins, ADP-release rate of myosin, flexibility of the S2 region, and cardiac myofilament contractility in normal and failing hearts.
Doublecortin (DCX) is a microtubule (MT)-associated protein that regulates MT structure and function during neuronal development and mutations in DCX lead to a spectrum of neurological disorders. The structural properties of MT-bound DCX that explain these disorders are incompletely determined. Here, we describe the molecular architecture of the DCX–MT complex through an integrative modeling approach that combines data from X-ray crystallography, cryo-electron microscopy, and a high-fidelity chemical crosslinking method. We demonstrate that DCX interacts with MTs through its N-terminal domain and induces a lattice-dependent self-association involving the C-terminal structured domain and its disordered tail, in a conformation that favors an open, domain-swapped state. The networked state can accommodate multiple different attachment points on the MT lattice, all of which orient the C-terminal tails away from the lattice. As numerous disease mutations cluster in the C-terminus, and regulatory phosphorylations cluster in its tail, our study shows that lattice-driven self-assembly is an important property of DCX.