1. Neuroscience
Download icon

Astrocytes release prostaglandin E2 to modify respiratory network activity

  1. David Forsberg  Is a corresponding author
  2. Thomas Ringstedt
  3. Eric Herlenius
  1. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
Research Advance
  • Cited 14
  • Views 1,471
  • Annotations
Cite this article as: eLife 2017;6:e29566 doi: 10.7554/eLife.29566

Abstract

Previously (Forsberg et al., 2016), we revealed that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), released during hypercapnic challenge, increases calcium oscillations in the chemosensitive parafacial respiratory group (pFRG/RTN). Here, we demonstrate that pFRG/RTN astrocytes are the PGE2 source. Two distinct astrocyte subtypes were found using transgenic mice expressing GFP and MrgA1 receptors in astrocytes. Although most astrocytes appeared dormant during time-lapse calcium imaging, a subgroup displayed persistent, rhythmic oscillating calcium activity. These active astrocytes formed a subnetwork within the respiratory network distinct from the neuronal network. Activation of exogenous MrgA1Rs expressed in astrocytes tripled astrocytic calcium oscillation frequency in both the preBötzinger complex and pFRG/RTN. However, neurons in the preBötC were unaffected, whereas neuronal calcium oscillatory frequency in pFRG/RTN doubled. Notably, astrocyte activation in pFRG/RTN triggered local PGE2 release and blunted the hypercapnic response. Thus, astrocytes play an active role in respiratory rhythm modulation, modifying respiratory-related behavior through PGE2 release in the pFRG/RTN.

Article and author information

Author details

  1. David Forsberg

    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    For correspondence
    david.forsberg@ki.se
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0002-4719-2201
  2. Thomas Ringstedt

    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  3. Eric Herlenius

    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Competing interests
    Eric Herlenius, employed at the Karolinska Institutet and the Karolinska University Hospital and is a coinventor of a patent application regarding biomarkers and their relation to breathing disorders, WO2009063226..
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0002-6859-0620

Funding

Karolinska Institutet

  • David Forsberg
  • Eric Herlenius

Swedish Research Council (EH 2016-01111)

  • Eric Herlenius

Hjärnfonden (EH FO2017-0203)

  • Eric Herlenius

M & M Wallenberg Foundation (EH 102179)

  • Eric Herlenius

Stockholms Läns Landsting (EH 20140011)

  • Eric Herlenius

Freemasons Children's House

  • David Forsberg
  • Eric Herlenius

Swedish National Heart and Lung Foundation (20150558)

  • Eric Herlenius

Swedish National Heart and Lung Foundation (20160549)

  • David Forsberg

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.

Ethics

Animal experimentation: The studies were performed in strict accordance with European Community Guidelines and protocols approved by the regional ethic committee (Permit numbers: N247/13 and N265/14b).

Reviewing Editor

  1. Jan-Marino Ramirez, Seattle Children's Research Institute and University of Washington, United States

Publication history

  1. Received: June 19, 2017
  2. Accepted: October 3, 2017
  3. Accepted Manuscript published: October 4, 2017 (version 1)
  4. Version of Record published: October 19, 2017 (version 2)

Copyright

© 2017, Forsberg et al.

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.

Metrics

  • 1,471
    Page views
  • 278
    Downloads
  • 14
    Citations

Article citation count generated by polling the highest count across the following sources: Scopus, Crossref, PubMed Central.

Download links

A two-part list of links to download the article, or parts of the article, in various formats.

Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)

Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)

Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)

Further reading

    1. Neuroscience
    Julio D Perez et al.
    Tools and Resources Updated

    Although mRNAs are localized in the processes of excitatory neurons, it is still unclear whether interneurons also localize a large population of mRNAs. In addition, the variability in the localized mRNA population within and between cell types is unknown. Here we describe the unbiased transcriptomic characterization of the subcellular compartments of hundreds of single neurons. We separately profiled the dendritic and somatic transcriptomes of individual rat hippocampal neurons and investigated mRNA abundances in the soma and dendrites of single glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. We found that, like their excitatory counterparts, interneurons contain a rich repertoire of ~4000 mRNAs. We observed more cell type-specific features among somatic transcriptomes than their associated dendritic transcriptomes. Finally, using celltype-specific metabolic labeling of isolated neurites, we demonstrated that the processes of glutamatergic and, notably, GABAergic neurons were capable of local translation, suggesting mRNA localization and local translation are general properties of neurons.

    1. Neuroscience
    Yunbo Li et al.
    Research Article

    The conserved MAP3K Dual leucine zipper kinases can activate JNK via MKK4 or MKK7. Vertebrate DLK and LZK share similar biochemical activities and undergo auto-activation upon increased expression. Depending on cell-type and nature of insults DLK and LZK can induce pro-regenerative, pro-apoptotic or pro-degenerative responses, although the mechanistic basis of their action is not well understood. Here, we investigated these two MAP3Ks in cerebellar Purkinje cells using loss- and gain-of function mouse models. While loss of each or both kinases does not cause discernible defects in Purkinje cells, activating DLK causes rapid death and activating LZK leads to slow degeneration. Each kinase induces JNK activation and caspase-mediated apoptosis independent of each other. Significantly, deleting CELF2, which regulates alternative splicing of Map2k7, strongly attenuates Purkinje cell degeneration induced by LZK, but not DLK. Thus, controlling the activity levels of DLK and LZK is critical for neuronal survival and health.