(A) Schematic of the real time place aversion test and sample pictures reporting CoChR expression in the injection site and in the LHb. Red dashed lines highlight the fiber track. Bottom, LHb-containing coronal section reporting the placement of the fibers in CoChR injected mice. (B) Tracks of single mice performances in the three groups tested. Each time the mouse crossed in the light-paired compartment blue light stimulation was triggered (20 Hz). Bottom, bar graphs and plots showing % of total time spent the laser-paired compartment (one way ANOVA, F = 35.51, ***p<0.0001) and the total distance travelled (one way ANOVA, F = 1.87, p=0.19) in the three groups (CTRL vs LHCoChR vs mVTACoChR, N = 6, 6, 4). N = mice. 3V, third ventricle, MHb, medial habenula, EPN, entopeduncular nucleus, IPN, interpeduncular nucleus, VTA, ventral tegmental area, Sn, substantia nigra, VmH, ventral medial hypothalamus. See also Figure 2. See Figure 2—figure supplement 1—source data 1.