TOR complex 1 (TORC1) is an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase complex that promotes cellular macromolecular synthesis and suppresses autophagy. Amino acid-induced activation of mammalian TORC1 is initiated by its recruitment to the RagA/B-RagC/D GTPase heterodimer, which is anchored to lysosomal membranes through the Ragulator complex. We have identified in the model organism Schizosaccharomyces pombe a Ragulator-like complex that tethers the Gtr1-Gtr2 Rag heterodimer to the membranes of vacuoles, the lysosome equivalent in yeasts. Unexpectedly, the Ragulator-Rag complex is not required for the vacuolar targeting of TORC1, but the complex plays a crucial role in attenuating TORC1 activity independently of the Tsc1-Tsc2 complex, a known negative regulator of TORC1 signaling. The GATOR1 complex, which functions as Gtr1 GAP, is essential for the TORC1 attenuation by the Ragulator-Rag complex, suggesting that Gtr1GDP-Gtr2 on vacuolar membranes moderate TORC1 signaling for optimal cellular response to nutrients.
- Tomoyuki Fukuda
- Tomoyuki Fukuda
- Tomoyuki Fukuda
- Kazuhiro Shiozaki
- Kim Hou Chia
- Fajar Sofyantoro
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Roger J Davis, University of Massachusetts Medical School, United States
© 2017, Chia et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
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Heterotrimeric G-proteins are signal transducers involved in mediating the action of many natural extracellular stimuli and many therapeutic agents. Non-invasive approaches to manipulate the activity of G-proteins with high precision are crucial to understand their regulation in space and time. Here, we developed LOV2GIVe, an engineered modular protein that allows the activation of heterotrimeric G-proteins with blue light. This optogenetic construct relies on a versatile design that differs from tools previously developed for similar purposes, that is metazoan opsins, which are light-activated G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Instead, LOV2GIVe consists of the fusion of a G-protein activating peptide derived from a non-GPCR regulator of G-proteins to a small plant protein domain, such that light uncages the G-protein activating module. Targeting LOV2GIVe to cell membranes allowed for light-dependent activation of Gi proteins in different experimental systems. In summary, LOV2GIVe expands the armamentarium and versatility of tools available to manipulate heterotrimeric G-protein activity.
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