Ion conductivity and the gating characteristics of tetrameric glutamate receptor ion channels are determined by their subunit composition. Competitive homo- and hetero-dimerization of their amino-terminal domains (ATDs) is a key step controlling assembly. Here we measured systematically the thermodynamic stabilities of homodimers and heterodimers of kainate and AMPA receptors using fluorescence-detected sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation. Measured affinities span many orders of magnitude, and complexes show large differences in kinetic stabilities. The association of kainate receptor ATD dimers is generally weaker than the association of AMPA receptor ATD dimers, but both show a general pattern of increased heterodimer stability as compared to the homodimers of their constituents, matching well physiologically observed receptor combinations. The free energy maps of AMPA and kainate receptor ATD dimers provide a framework for the interpretation of observed receptor subtype combinations and possible assembly pathways.
- Peter Schuck
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Gary L Westbrook, Vollum Institute, United States
This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
We present a new approach for macromolecular structure determination from multiple particles in electron cryo-tomography (cryo-ET) data sets. Whereas existing subtomogram averaging approaches are based on 3D data models, we propose to optimise a regularised likelihood target that approximates a function of the 2D experimental images. In addition, analogous to Bayesian polishing and contrast transfer function (CTF) refinement in single-particle analysis, we describe approaches that exploit the increased signal-to-noise ratio in the averaged structure to optimise tilt series alignments, beam-induced motions of the particles throughout the tilt series acquisition, defoci of the individual particles, as well as higher-order optical aberrations of the microscope. Implementation of our approaches in the open-source software package RELION aims to facilitate their general use, in particular for those researchers who are already familiar with its single-particle analysis tools. We illustrate for three applications that our approaches allow structure determination from cryo-ET data to resolutions sufficient for de novo atomic modelling.
Undruggability of RAS proteins has necessitated alternative strategies for the development of effective inhibitors. In this respect, phosphorylation has recently come into prominence as this reversible post-translational modification attenuates sensitivity of RAS towards RAF. As such, in this study, we set out to unveil the impact of phosphorylation on dynamics of HRASWT and aim to invoke similar behavior in HRASG12D mutant by means of small therapeutic molecules. To this end, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using phosphorylated HRAS and showed that phosphorylation of Y32 distorted Switch I, hence the RAS/RAF interface. Consequently, we targeted Switch I in HRASG12D by means of approved therapeutic molecules and showed that the ligands enabled detachment of Switch I from the nucleotide-binding pocket. Moreover, we demonstrated that displacement of Switch I from the nucleotide-binding pocket was energetically more favorable in the presence of the ligand. Importantly, we verified computational findings in vitro where HRASG12D/RAF interaction was prevented by the ligand in HEK293T cells that expressed HRASG12D mutant protein. Therefore, these findings suggest that targeting Switch I, hence making Y32 accessible might open up new avenues in future drug discovery strategies that target mutant RAS proteins.