Adaptive autoimmunity is restrained by controlling population sizes and pathogenicity of harmful clones, while innate destruction is controlled at effector phase. We report here that deletion of Rptor in mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells causes self-destructive innate immunity by massively increasing the population of previously uncharacterized innate myelolymphoblastoid effector cells (IMLECs). Mouse IMLECs are CD3-B220-NK1.1-Ter119- CD11clow/-CD115-F4/80low/-Gr-1- CD11b+, but surprisingly express high levels of PD-L1. Although they morphologically resemble lymphocytes and actively produce transcripts from Immunoglobulin loci, IMLECs have non-rearranged Ig loci, are phenotypically distinguishable from all known lymphocytes, and have a gene signature that bridges lymphoid and myeloid leukocytes. Rptor deletion unleashes differentiation of IMLECs from common myeloid progenitor cells by reducing expression of Myb. Importantly, IMLECs broadly overexpress pattern-recognition receptors and their expansion causes systemic inflammation in response to Toll-like receptor ligands in mice. Our data unveil a novel leukocyte population and an unrecognized role of Raptor/mTORC1 in innate immune tolerance.
- Yang Liu
- Pan Zheng
- Yang Liu
- Pan Zheng
- Yang Liu
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal careand use committee (IACUC) protocols (312-13-12 and #00030574) of the Children's National Medical Center. Every effort was made to minimize suffering.
- Satyajit Rath, Agharkar Research Institute (ARI) and Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), India
© 2017, Tang et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Langerhans cells are specialized antigen-presenting cells localized within the epidermis and mucosal epithelium. Upon contact with Langerhans cells, pathogens are captured by the C-type lectin langerin and internalized into a structurally unique vesicle known as a Birbeck granule. Although the immunological role of Langerhans cells and Birbeck granules have been extensively studied, the mechanism by which the characteristic zippered membrane structure of Birbeck granules is formed remains elusive. In this study, we observed isolated Birbeck granules using cryo-electron tomography and reconstructed the 3D structure of the repeating unit of the honeycomb lattice of langerin at 6.4 Å resolution. We found that the interaction between the two langerin trimers was mediated by docking the flexible loop at residues 258-263 into the secondary carbohydrate-binding cleft. Mutations within the loop inhibited Birbeck granule formation and the internalization of HIV pseudovirus. These findings suggest a molecular mechanism for membrane zippering during Birbeck granule biogenesis and provide insight into the role of langerin in the defense against viral infection.
Inflammatory chemokines and their receptors are central to the development of inflammatory/immune pathologies. The apparent complexity of this system, coupled with lack of appropriate in vivo models, has limited our understanding of how chemokines orchestrate inflammatory responses and has hampered attempts at targeting this system in inflammatory disease. Novel approaches are therefore needed to provide crucial biological, and therapeutic, insights into the chemokine-chemokine receptor family. Here, we report the generation of transgenic multi-chemokine receptor reporter mice in which spectrally distinct fluorescent reporters mark expression of CCRs 1, 2, 3, and 5, key receptors for myeloid cell recruitment in inflammation. Analysis of these animals has allowed us to define, for the first time, individual and combinatorial receptor expression patterns on myeloid cells in resting and inflamed conditions. Our results demonstrate that chemokine receptor expression is highly specific, and more selective than previously anticipated.