Trial-related activation analysis confirmed (A) the subsequent memory effect (SME, that is, HH >Miss) and (B) subsequent forgetting effect (SFE, that is, Miss > HH). Statistical parametric maps are thresholded at p<0.05, FWE corrected across the whole brain. (C) Bar graph shows beta estimates (mean ±SEM across participants) for high-confidence hit (HH), low-confidence hit (LH), and Miss trials in representative ROIs from the SME/SFE regions. (D) Connectivity matrix of the high encoding state, averaged across participants. (E) Connectivity matrix of the low encoding state, averaged across participants. Color bars indicate Fisher-Z transform of Pearson’s correlation coefficients. (F) A matrix illustrating statistical differences in functional connectivity patterns between the high and low encoding states. Color bar indicates z values derived from Wilcoxon signed-rank test across participants. Connections showing significant differences (p<0.05, FDR corrected) are marked in red in the upper triangle of the matrix. (G) Within-subnetwork connectivity for the SME and SFE regions (mean Fisher’s Z value of connections within the SME and SFE regions, respectively). Magenta and black circles represent individual-participant data for the high and low encoding states, respectively. Green horizontal lines indicate across-participant means. Asterisk indicates a significant difference in within-subnetwork connectivity between the high and low encoding states (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p<0.05). IFC, inferior frontal cortex; PMC, premotor cortex; HCP, hippocampus; PHG, parahippocampal gyrus; IPS, intraparietal sulcus; MOG, middle occipital gyrus; FP, frontal pole; ACC, anterior cingulate cortex; vmPFC, ventromedial prefrontal cortex; PCC, posterior cingulate cortex; TPJ, temporoparietal junction. Source data for the analyses reported here are available in Figure 3—source data 1–5.