Inherent correlations between visual and semantic features in real-world scenes make it difficult to determine how different scene properties contribute to neural representations. Here, we assessed the contributions of multiple properties to scene representation by partitioning the variance explained in human behavioral and brain measurements by three feature models whose inter-correlations were minimized a priori through stimulus preselection. Behavioral assessments of scene similarity reflected unique contributions from a functional feature model indicating potential actions in scenes as well as high-level visual features from a deep neural network (DNN). In contrast, similarity of cortical responses in scene-selective areas was uniquely explained by mid- and high-level DNN features only, while an object label model did not contribute uniquely to either domain. The striking dissociation between functional and DNN features in their contribution to behavioral and brain representations of scenes indicates that scene-selective cortex represents only a subset of behaviorally relevant scene information.
- Iris IA Groen
- Chris I Baker
- Iris IA Groen
- Li Fei-Fei
- Diane M Beck
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Human subjects: All participants had normal or corrected-to-normal vision and gave written informed consent as part of the study protocol (93 M-0170, NCT00001360) prior to participation in the study. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the National Institutes of Health and was conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki.
- Doris Y Tsao, California Institute of Technology, United States
This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
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Abnormal α-synuclein aggregation has been implicated in several diseases and is known to spread in a prion-like manner. There is a relationship between protein aggregate structure (strain) and clinical phenotype in prion diseases, however, whether differences in the strains of α-synuclein aggregates account for the different pathologies remained unclear. Here, we generated two types of α-synuclein fibrils from identical monomer and investigated their seeding and propagation ability in mice and primary-cultured neurons. One α-synuclein fibril induced marked accumulation of phosphorylated α-synuclein and ubiquitinated protein aggregates, while the other did not, indicating the formation of α-synuclein two strains. Notably, the former α-synuclein strain inhibited proteasome activity and co-precipitated with 26S proteasome complex. Further examination indicated that structural differences in the C-terminal region of α-synuclein strains lead to different effects on proteasome activity. These results provide a possible molecular mechanism to account for the different pathologies induced by different α-synuclein strains.
The human superior temporal plane, the site of the auditory cortex, displays high inter-individual macro-anatomical variation. This questions the validity of curvature-based alignment (CBA) methods for in vivo imaging data. Here, we have addressed this issue by developing CBA+, which is a cortical surface registration method that uses prior macro-anatomical knowledge. We validate this method by using cytoarchitectonic areas on 10 individual brains (which we make publicly available). Compared to volumetric and standard surface registration, CBA+ results in a more accurate cytoarchitectonic auditory atlas. The improved correspondence of micro-anatomy following the improved alignment of macro-anatomy validates the superiority of CBA+ compared to CBA. In addition, we use CBA+ to align in vivo and postmortem data. This allows projection of functional and anatomical information collected in vivo onto the cytoarchitectonic areas, which has the potential to contribute to the ongoing debate on the parcellation of the human auditory cortex.