(A) Schematic view of a cell cycle oscillator that consists of coupled positive and negative feedback loops. The central regulator, cyclin B-Cdk1 complex activates its own activator, phosphatase Cdc25, forming a positive feedback loop, and inhibits its own inhibitor, kinase Wee1, forming a double negative feedback loop. Additionally, cyclinB-Cdk1 activates the E3 ubiquitin ligase APC/C, which targets cyclin B for degradation and completes a core negative feedback loop. Active APC/C also promotes the degradation of another substrate securin. Once cyclinB1-Cdk1 complex is activated, the circuit drives a set of mitotic events including chromosome condensation and nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB). (B) Experimental procedures. Cycling Xenopus extracts are supplemented with various combinations of recombinant proteins, mRNAs, and de-membraned sperm DNAs, which are encapsulated in 2% Perfluoropolyether-poly (ethylene glycol) (PFPE-PEG) oil microemulsions. Scale bar is 100 µm. (C) Snapshots of a droplet were taken periodically both in fluorescence channels (top three rows) and bright-field (the last row). The cyclic progression of the cell cycle clock and its downstream mitotic processes are simultaneously tracked by multiple fluorescence reporters. The clock regulator APC/C activity is reported by its substrate securin-mCherry, chromosomal morphology changes by the Hoechst stains, and NEB by GFP-NLS. Nuclear envelopes (red arrows) are also detectable on bright field images, matching the localization of GFP-NLS indicated nuclei. Scale bar is 30 µm. (D) Multi-channel measurements for the droplet in Figure 1C. The nucleus area (green circle) is calculated from the area of the nuclear envelope indicated by GFP-NLS, noting that the areas of the green circles are also scaled with the real areas calculated for the nuclei. DNA area curve (blue line) shows the chromosome area identified by Hoechst 33342 dye. Chromosome condensation happens almost at the same time as the nuclear envelope breaks down (black dashed line). The red dashed line represents the intensity of securin-mCherry over time, suggesting that degradation of the APC/C substrate lags behind NEB consistently at each cycle.