(A, C, E, G) Primary cultured cortical neurons from E17.5 embryonic cortices, electroporated at E15.5, were in-vitro cultured for 24 hr, immunostained by Tuj1 antibody for tubulin and counterstained with phalloidin for F-actin. Arrowheads, lamellipodia; Arrows, defective lamellipodia. (B, D, F, H) Quantification of lamellipodial size per neuron shown in (A), (C), (E), (G). n = 16 cells for SCR, αKD, αKD+αc1*, αKD+αc1*-AA, and αKD+αc2*; n = 15 cells for αKD+α6*, αKD+α6*-AA; n = 12 cells for αKD + Myr-αCD*-AA, αKD + Abi2; n = 11 cells for αKD + Myr-αCD*; n = 10 cells for αKD + WAVE2. (I) Representative frames from time-lapse imaging of primary cortical neurons cultured in vitro for 24 hr. See also Video 3. Arrowheads, lamellipodia. All data are presented as a scatter-dot plot. The median is shown as a line with the interquartile range. Student’s t test for (A). For (D), (F), (H), statistical significance was assessed using one-way ANOVA, followed by a post hoc Tukey’s multiple comparisons test. ***p<0.001; ns, not significant. See Figure 5—source data 1. Scale bar, 10 μm.