XY systems usually show chromosome-wide compensation of X-linked genes, while in many ZW systems, compensation is restricted to a minority of dosage sensitive genes. Why such differences arose is still unclear. Here, we combine comparative genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics to obtain a complete overview of the evolution of gene dosage on the Z-chromosome of Schistosoma parasites. We compare the Z-chromosome gene content of African (Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium) and Asian (S. japonicum) schistosomes, and describe lineage-specific evolutionary strata. We use these to assess gene expression evolution following sex-linkage. The resulting patterns suggest a reduction in expression of Z-linked genes in females, combined with up-regulation of the Z in both sexes, in line with the first step of Ohno's classic model of dosage compensation evolution. Quantitative proteomics suggest that post-transcriptional mechanisms do not play a major role in balancing the expression of Z-linked genes.
- Beatriz Vicoso
- Yohann Couté
- Yohann Couté
- Thomas Quack
- Christoph Grevelding
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Asifa Akhtar, Max Planck Institute for Immunobiology and Epigenetics, Germany
© 2018, Picard et al.
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