Regulating nuclear histone balance is essential for survival, yet in early Drosophila melanogaster embryos many regulatory strategies employed in somatic cells are unavailable. Previous work had suggested that lipid droplets (LDs) buffer nuclear accumulation of the histone variant H2Av. Here we elucidate the buffering mechanism and demonstrate that it is developmentally controlled. Using live imaging, we find that H2Av continuously exchanges between LDs. Our data suggest that the major driving force for H2Av accumulation in nuclei is H2Av abundance in the cytoplasm and that LD binding slows nuclear import kinetically, by limiting this cytoplasmic pool. Nuclear H2Av accumulation is indeed inversely regulated by overall buffering capacity. Histone exchange between LDs abruptly ceases during the midblastula transition, presumably to allow canonical regulatory mechanisms to take over. These findings provide a mechanistic basis for the emerging role of LDs as regulators of protein homeostasis and demonstrate that LDs can control developmental progression.
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript.
- Michael Andreas Welte
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Robert V Farese, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, United States
© 2018, Johnson et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Deciphering mechanisms controlling SNARE localization within the Golgi complex is crucial to understanding protein trafficking patterns within the secretory pathway. SNAREs are also thought to prime coatomer protein I (COPI) assembly to ensure incorporation of these essential cargoes into vesicles, but the regulation of these events is poorly understood. Here, we report roles for ubiquitin recognition by COPI in SNARE trafficking and in stabilizing interactions between Arf, COPI, and Golgi SNAREs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ability of COPI to bind ubiquitin, but not the dilysine motif, through its N-terminal WD repeat domain of β′-COP or through an unrelated ubiquitin-binding domain is essential for the proper localization of Golgi SNAREs Bet1 and Gos1. We find that COPI, the ArfGAP Glo3, and multiple Golgi SNAREs are ubiquitinated. Notably, the binding of Arf and COPI to Gos1 is markedly enhanced by ubiquitination of these components. Glo3 is proposed to prime COPI–SNARE interactions; however, Glo3 is not enriched in the ubiquitin-stabilized SNARE–Arf–COPI complex but is instead enriched with COPI complexes that lack SNAREs. These results support a new model for how posttranslational modifications drive COPI priming events crucial for Golgi SNARE localization.
Biological clocks are fundamental to an organism’s health, controlling periodicity of behaviour and metabolism. Here, we identify two acid-sensing ion channels, with very different proton sensing properties, and describe their role in an ultradian clock, the defecation motor program (DMP) of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. An ACD-5-containing channel, on the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelium, is essential for maintenance of luminal acidity, and thus the rhythmic oscillations in lumen pH. In contrast, the second channel, composed of FLR-1, ACD-3 and/or DEL-5, located on the basolateral membrane, controls the intracellular Ca2+ wave and forms a core component of the master oscillator that controls the timing and rhythmicity of the DMP. flr-1 and acd-3/del-5 mutants show severe developmental and metabolic defects. We thus directly link the proton-sensing properties of these channels to their physiological roles in pH regulation and Ca2+ signalling, the generation of an ultradian oscillator, and its metabolic consequences.