Here, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana Formin 2 (AtFH2) localizes to PD through its transmembrane domain and is required for normal intercellular trafficking. Although loss-of-function atfh2 mutants have no overt developmental defect, PD's permeability and sensitivity to virus infection are increased in atfh2 plants. Interestingly, AtFH2 functions in a partially redundant manner with its closest homolog AtFH1, which also contains a PD localization signal. Strikingly, targeting of Class I formins to PD was also confirmed in rice, suggesting that the involvement of Class I formins in regulating actin dynamics at PD may be evolutionarily conserved in plants. In vitro biochemical analysis showed that AtFH2 fails to nucleate actin assembly but caps and stabilizes actin filaments. We also demonstrate that the interaction between AtFH2 and actin filaments is crucial for its function in vivo. These data allow us to propose that AtFH2 regulates PD's permeability by anchoring actin filaments to PD.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Source data files have been provided for related Figures shown in the manuscript.
- Shanjin Huang
- Yule Liu
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Gary Stacey, University of Missouri, United States
© 2018, Diao et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Photosystem I (PSI) is a multi-subunit pigment-protein complex that functions in light-harvesting and photochemical charge-separation reactions, followed by reduction of NADP to NADPH required for CO2 fixation in photosynthetic organisms. PSI from different photosynthetic organisms has a variety of chlorophylls (Chls), some of which are at lower-energy levels than its reaction center P700, a special pair of Chls, and are called low-energy Chls. However, the sites of low-energy Chls are still under debate. Here, we solved a 2.04-Å resolution structure of a PSI trimer by cryo-electron microscopy from a primordial cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421, which has no low-energy Chls. The structure shows the absence of some subunits commonly found in other cyanobacteria, confirming the primordial nature of this cyanobacterium. Comparison with the known structures of PSI from other cyanobacteria and eukaryotic organisms reveals that one dimeric and one trimeric Chls are lacking in the Gloeobacter PSI. The dimeric and trimeric Chls are named Low1 and Low2, respectively. Low2 is missing in some cyanobacterial and eukaryotic PSIs, whereas Low1 is absent only in Gloeobacter. These findings provide insights into not only the identity of low-energy Chls in PSI, but also the evolutionary changes of low-energy Chls in oxyphototrophs.
The fern Ceratopteris richardii has been studied as a model organism for over 50 years because it is easy to grow and has a short life cycle. In particular, as the first homosporous vascular plant for which genomic resources were developed, C. richardii has been an important system for studying plant evolution. However, we know relatively little about the natural history of C. richardii. In this article, we summarize what is known about this aspect of C. richardii, and discuss how learning more about its natural history could greatly increase our understanding of the evolution of land plants.