Neuronal cell morphogenesis depends on the proper regulation of microtubule-based transport, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we report our study of MAP7, a unique microtubule-associated protein that interacts with both microtubules and the motor protein kinesin-1. Structure-function analysis in rat embryonic sensory neurons shows that the kinesin-1 interacting domain in MAP7 is required for axon and branch growth but not for branch formation. Also, two unique microtubule binding sites are found in MAP7 that have distinct dissociation kinetics and are both required for branch formation. Furthermore, MAP7 recruits kinesin-1 dynamically to microtubules, leading to alterations in organelle transport behaviors, particularly pause/speed switching frequency. As MAP7 is localized to branch sites, our results suggest a novel mechanism mediated by the dual interactions between MAP7 with microtubules and kinesin-1 in the precise control of microtubule-based transport during axon morphogenesis.
All quantitative data for statistical analysis shown in figures are provided as source data in corresponding Excel sheets.
- Le Ma
- Le Ma
- Kristen J Verhey
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: The study was performed in strict accordance with the Guidelines for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health and the approved IACUC protocol (#01560) of the Thomas Jefferson University.
- Kang Shen, Stanford University, United States
© 2018, Tymanskyj et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Neuroblasts in Drosophila divide asymmetrically, sequentially expressing a series of intrinsic factors to generate a diversity of neuron types. These intrinsic factors known as temporal factors dictate timing of neuroblast transitions in response to steroid hormone signaling and specify early versus late temporal fates in neuroblast neuron progeny. After completing their temporal programs, neuroblasts differentiate or die, finalizing both neuron number and type within each neuroblast lineage. From a screen aimed at identifying genes required to terminate neuroblast divisions, we identified Notch and Notch pathway components. When Notch is knocked down, neuroblasts maintain early temporal factor expression longer, delay late temporal factor expression, and continue dividing into adulthood. We find that Delta, expressed in cortex glia, neuroblasts, and after division, their GMC progeny, regulates neuroblast Notch activity. We also find that Delta in neuroblasts is expressed high early, low late, and is controlled by the intrinsic temporal program: early factor Imp promotes Delta, late factors Syp/E93 reduce Delta. Thus, in addition to systemic steroid hormone cues, forward lineage progression is controlled by local cell-cell signaling between neuroblasts and their cortex glia/GMC neighbors: Delta transactivates Notch in neuroblasts bringing the early temporal program and early temporal factor expression to a close.
The fusion of mammalian gametes requires the interaction between IZUMO1 on the sperm and JUNO on the oocyte. We have recently shown that ectopic expression of mouse IZUMO1 induces cell-cell fusion and that sperm can fuse to fibroblasts expressing JUNO. Here, we found that the incubation of mouse sperm with hamster fibroblasts or human epithelial cells in culture induces the fusion between these somatic cells and the formation of syncytia, a pattern previously observed with some animal viruses. This sperm-induced cell-cell fusion requires a species-matching JUNO on both fusing cells, can be blocked by an antibody against IZUMO1, and does not rely on the synthesis of new proteins. The fusion is dependent on the sperm’s fusogenic capacity, making this a reliable, fast, and simple method for predicting sperm function during the diagnosis of male infertility.