Proper kinetochore-microtubule attachments, mediated by the NDC80 complex, are required for error-free chromosome segregation. Erroneous attachments are corrected by the tension dependence of kinetochore-microtubule interactions. Here, we present a method, based on fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and Förster resonance energy transfer, to quantitatively measure the fraction of NDC80 complexes bound to microtubules at individual kinetochores in living human cells. We found that NDC80 binding is modulated in a chromosome autonomous fashion over prometaphase and metaphase, and is predominantly regulated by centromere tension. We show that this tension dependency requires phosphorylation of the N-terminal tail of Hec1, a component of the NDC80 complex, and the proper localization of Aurora B kinase, which modulates NDC80 binding. Our results lead to a mathematical model of the molecular basis of tension-dependent NDC80 binding to kinetochore microtubules in vivo.
- All microscopy image data and data points in the presented plots have been deposited in Dryad (DOI: https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.14rr125)- Analysis codes are deposited in Github, where doi's are provided in the manuscript.
Data from: Measuring NDC80 binding reveals the molecular basis of tension-dependent kinetochore-microtubule attachments.Available at Dryad Digital Repository under a CC0 Public Domain Dedication.
- Daniel J Needleman
- Rohit V Pappu
- Daniel J Needleman
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Trisha N Davis, University of Washington, United States
© 2018, Yoo et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Inside prokaryotic cells, passive translational diffusion typically limits the rates with which cytoplasmic proteins can reach their locations. Diffusion is thus fundamental to most cellular processes, but the understanding of protein mobility in the highly crowded and non-homogeneous environment of a bacterial cell is still limited. Here we investigated the mobility of a large set of proteins in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli, by employing fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) combined with simulations and theoretical modeling. We conclude that cytoplasmic protein mobility could be well described by Brownian diffusion in the confined geometry of the bacterial cell and at the high viscosity imposed by macromolecular crowding. We observed similar size dependence of protein diffusion for the majority of tested proteins, whether native or foreign to E. coli. For the faster-diffusing proteins, this size dependence is well consistent with the Stokes-Einstein relation once taking into account the specific dumbbell shape of protein fusions. Pronounced subdiffusion and hindered mobility are only observed for proteins with extensive interactions within the cytoplasm. Finally, while protein diffusion becomes markedly faster in actively growing cells, at high temperature, or upon treatment with rifampicin, and slower at high osmolarity, all of these perturbations affect proteins of different sizes in the same proportions, which could thus be described as changes of a well-defined cytoplasmic viscosity.
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