Thiol-dependent redox regulation controls central processes in plant cells including photosynthesis. Thioredoxins reductively activate e.g. Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes. However the mechanism of oxidative inactivation is unknown despite its importance for efficient regulation. Here, the abundant 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin (2-CysPrx), but not its site-directed variants, mediates rapid inactivation of reductively activated fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and NADPH-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH) in the presence of the proper thioredoxins. Deactivation of phosphoribulokinase (PRK) and MDH was compromised in 2cysprxAB mutant plants upon light/dark transition compared to wildtype. The decisive role of 2-CysPrx in regulating photosynthesis was evident from reoxidation kinetics of ferredoxin upon darkening of intact leaves since its half time decreased 3.5-times in 2cysprxAB. The disadvantage of inefficient deactivation turned into an advantage in fluctuating light. Physiological parameters like MDH and PRK inactivation, photosynthetic kinetics and response to fluctuating light fully recovered in 2cysprxAB mutants complemented with 2-CysPrxA underlining the significance of 2-CysPrx. The results show that the 2-CysPrx serves as electron sink in the thiol network important to oxidize reductively activated proteins and represents the missing link in the reversal of thioredoxin-dependent regulation.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Original and aggregated data are provided in the supplementary data file.
- Karl-Josef Dietz
- Karl-Josef Dietz
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Christine Foyer, University of Leeds, United Kingdom
© 2018, Vaseghi et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The growth of a plant root relies on careful control of root surface pH.
The current pace of crop plant optimization is insufficient to meet future demands and there is an urgent need for novel breeding strategies. It was previously shown that plants tolerate the generation of triparental polyspermy-derived plants and that polyspermy can bypass hybridization barriers. Polyspermy thus has the potential to harness previously incompatible climate-adapted wild varieties for plant breeding. However, factors that influence polyspermy frequencies were not previously known. The endopeptidases ECS1 and ECS2 have been reported to prevent the attraction of supernumerary pollen tubes by cleaving the pollen tube attractant LURE1. Here, we show that these genes have an earlier function that is manifested by incomplete double fertilization in plants defective for both genes. In addition to supernumerary pollen tube attraction, ecs1 ecs2 mutants exhibit a delay in synergid disintegration, are susceptible to heterofertilization, and segregate haploid plants that lack a paternal genome contribution. Our results thus uncover ECS1 and ECS2 as the first female factors triggering the induction of maternal haploids. Capitalizing on a high-throughput polyspermy assay, we in addition show that the double mutant exhibits an increase in polyspermy frequencies. As both haploid induction and polyspermy are valuable breeding aims, our results open new avenues for accelerated generation of climate-adapted cultivars.