(A) Predicted letter 3-back working memory ability for patients (N = 58, 77, 45, and 69 for SCZ, MDD, OCD, and ASD, respectively) and their age- and gender-matched healthy/typically developed controls (HC, N = 60, 62, 47, and 71) shown as kernel density. For illustration purposes, distribution of each control group was standardized to that of the ATR dataset, and the same linear transformation was applied to patients’ distributions. μ indicates mean value for each group. (B) Violin plots of Z-scores for predicted working memory ability alterations. White circles indicate medians. Box limits indicate 25th and 75th percentiles. Whiskers extend 1.5 times interquartile range from 25th and 75th percentiles. (C) Comparison of estimated effect sizes for working memory deficits. k indicates number of studies included in the meta-analyses (Forbes et al., 2009; Snyder, 2014; Snyder et al., 2015). Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals.