(A) In TD children, mother’s voice elicited greater activity in auditory brain structures in the midbrain and superior temporal cortex (top row, left), including bilateral inferior colliculus (IC) and primary auditory cortex (medial Heschl’s gyrus; mHG) and a wide extent of voice-selective superior temporal gyrus (STG; top row, middle) and superior temporal sulcus (STS). Mother’s voice also showed greater activity in occipital cortex, including fusiform cortex (bottom row, left) as well as core structures of the mesolimbic reward system, including bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), and the anterior insula (AI) of the salience network. (B) Greater activity for mother’s voice was evident in a smaller collection of brain regions in children with ASD compared to TD children. Mother’s voice did not elicit greater activity in auditory brain structures in the midbrain but extended slightly into primary auditory cortex (top row, left), and activated a more limited extent of voice-selective STG (top row, middle) and STS. Mother’s voice did not elicit greater activity compared to unfamiliar female voices in fusiform cortex, and mesolimbic reward system. Mother’s voice did elicit greater activity in AI of the salience network.