Oomycete pathogens secrete host cell-entering effector proteins to manipulate host immunity during infection. We previously showed that PsAvh52, an early-induced RxLR effector secreted from the soybean root rot pathogen, Phytophthora sojae, could suppress plant immunity. Here, we found that PsAvh52 is required for full virulence on soybean and binds to a novel soybean transacetylase, GmTAP1, in vivo and in vitro. PsAvh52 could cause GmTAP1 to relocate into the nucleus where GmTAP1 could acetylate histones H2A and H3 during early infection, thereby promoting susceptibility to P. sojae. In the absence of PsAvh52, GmTAP1 remained confined to the cytoplasm and did not modify plant susceptibility. These results demonstrate that GmTAP1 is a susceptibility factor that is hijacked by PsAvh52 in order to promote epigenetic modifications that enhance the susceptibility of soybean to P. sojae infection.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files
- Yuanchao Wang
- Yuanchao Wang
- Yuanchao Wang
- Yuanchao Wang
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Jian-Min Zhou, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
© 2018, Li et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Microsporidia are eukaryotic, obligate intracellular parasites that infect a wide range of hosts, leading to health and economic burdens worldwide. Microsporidia use an unusual invasion organelle called the polar tube (PT), which is ejected from a dormant spore at ultra-fast speeds, to infect host cells. The mechanics of PT ejection are impressive. Anncaliia algerae microsporidia spores (3–4 μm in size) shoot out a 100-nm-wide PT at a speed of 300 μm/s, creating a shear rate of 3000 s-1. The infectious cargo, which contains two nuclei, is shot through this narrow tube for a distance of ∼60–140 μm (Jaroenlak et al, 2020) and into the host cell. Considering the large hydraulic resistance in an extremely thin tube and the low-Reynolds-number nature of the process, it is not known how microsporidia can achieve this ultrafast event. In this study, we use Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy to capture 3-dimensional snapshots of A. algerae spores in different states of the PT ejection process. Grounded in these data, we propose a theoretical framework starting with a systematic exploration of possible topological connectivity amongst organelles, and assess the energy requirements of the resulting models. We perform PT firing experiments in media of varying viscosity, and use the results to rank our proposed hypotheses based on their predicted energy requirement. We also present a possible mechanism for cargo translocation, and quantitatively compare our predictions to experimental observations. Our study provides a comprehensive biophysical analysis of the energy dissipation of microsporidian infection process and demonstrates the extreme limits of cellular hydraulics.
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