RNA polymerases (RNAPs) contain a conserved 'secondary channel' which binds regulatory factors that modulate transcription initiation. In Escherichia coli, the secondary channel factors (SCFs) GreB and DksA both repress ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription, but SCF loading and repression mechanisms are unclear. We observed in vitro fluorescently labeled GreB molecules binding to single RNAPs and initiation of individual transcripts from an rRNA promoter. GreB arrived and departed from promoters only in complex with RNAP. GreB did not alter initial RNAP-promoter binding but instead blocked a step after conformational rearrangement of the initial RNAP-promoter complex. Strikingly, GreB-RNAP complexes never initiated at an rRNA promoter; only RNAP molecules arriving at the promoter without bound GreB produced transcript. The data reveal that a model SCF functions by a 'delayed inhibition' mechanism and suggest that rRNA promoters are inhibited by GreB/DksA because their short-lived RNAP complexes do not allow sufficient time for SCFs to dissociate.
- Jeff Gelles
- Anne Gershenson
- Robert Landick
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Antoine M van Oijen, University of Wollongong, Australia
© 2019, Stumper et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)
Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)
Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)
Modifications in the tRNA anticodon loop, adjacent to the three-nucleotide anticodon, influence translation fidelity by stabilizing the tRNA to allow for accurate reading of the mRNA genetic code. One example is the N1-methylguanosine modification at guanine nucleotide 37 (m1G37) located in the anticodon loop andimmediately adjacent to the anticodon nucleotides 34, 35, 36. The absence of m1G37 in tRNAPro causes +1 frameshifting on polynucleotide, slippery codons. Here, we report structures of the bacterial ribosome containing tRNAPro bound to either cognate or slippery codons to determine how the m1G37 modification prevents mRNA frameshifting. The structures reveal that certain codon–anticodon contexts and the lack of m1G37 destabilize interactions of tRNAPro with the P site of the ribosome, causing large conformational changes typically only seen during EF-G-mediated translocation of the mRNA-tRNA pairs. These studies provide molecular insights into how m1G37 stabilizes the interactions of tRNAPro with the ribosome in the context of a slippery mRNA codon.
In humans, the >800 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are responsible for transducing diverse chemical stimuli to alter cell state, and are the largest class of drug targets. Their myriad structural conformations and various modes of signaling make it challenging to understand their structure and function. Here we developed a platform to characterize large libraries of GPCR variants in human cell lines with a barcoded transcriptional reporter of G-protein signal transduction. We tested 7,800 of 7,828 possible single amino acid substitutions to the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) at four concentrations of the agonist isoproterenol. We identified residues specifically important for β2AR signaling, mutations in the human population that are potentially loss of function, and residues that modulate basal activity. Using unsupervised learning, we resolve residues critical for signaling, including all major structural motifs and molecular interfaces. We also find a previously uncharacterized structural latch spanning the first two extracellular loops that is highly conserved across Class A GPCRs and is conformationally rigid in both the inactive and active states of the receptor. More broadly, by linking deep mutational scanning with engineered transcriptional reporters, we establish a generalizable method for exploring pharmacogenomics, structure and function across broad classes of drug receptors.