To date there exists no reliable method to non-invasively upregulate or downregulate the state of the resting human motor system over a large dynamic range. Here we show that an operant conditioning paradigm which provides neurofeedback of the size of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), enables participants to self-modulate their own brain state. Following training, participants were able to robustly increase (by 83.8%) and decrease (by 30.6%) their MEP amplitudes. This volitional up-versus downegulation of corticomotor excitability caused an increase of late-cortical disinhibition (LCD), a TMS derived read-out of presynaptic GABAB disinhibition, which was accompanied by an increase of gamma and a decrease of alpha oscillations in the trained hemisphere. This approach paves the way for future investigations into how altered brain state influences motor neurophysiology and recovery of function in a neurorehabilitation context.
Data are openly available on the ETH Library Research Collection with the DOI: https://doi.org/10.3929/ethz-b-000300799.This contains processed EEG data for all subjects (Figure 5), EMG data and MEPs from the main experiment (Figure 2) and follow-up experiments (Figures 3 and 4).
MEP neurofeedbackETH Library research collection, ethz-b-000300799.
- Nicole Wenderoth
- Kathy Ruddy
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Human subjects: All participants gave written informed consent to procedures. The experiments were approved by the Kantonale Ethikkommission Zürich, and were conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki (1964).
- Nicole C Swann, University of Oregon, United States
© 2018, Ruddy et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), a retinotopic relay center where visual inputs from the retina are processed and relayed to the visual cortex, has been proposed as a potential target for artificial vision. At present, it is unknown whether optogenetic LGN stimulation is sufficient to elicit behaviorally relevant percepts, and the properties of LGN neural responses relevant for artificial vision have not been thoroughly characterized. Here, we demonstrate that tree shrews pretrained on a visual detection task can detect optogenetic LGN activation using an AAV2-CamKIIα-ChR2 construct and readily generalize from visual to optogenetic detection. Simultaneous recordings of LGN spiking activity and primary visual cortex (V1) local field potentials (LFP) during optogenetic LGN stimulation show that LGN neurons reliably follow optogenetic stimulation at frequencies up to 60 Hz, and uncovered a striking phase locking between the V1 local field potential (LFP) and the evoked spiking activity in LGN. These phase relationships were maintained over a broad range of LGN stimulation frequencies, up to 80 Hz, with spike field coherence values favoring higher frequencies, indicating the ability to relay temporally precise information to V1 using light activation of the LGN. Finally, V1 LFP responses showed sensitivity values to LGN optogenetic activation that were similar to the animal's behavioral performance. Taken together, our findings confirm the LGN as a potential target for visual prosthetics in a highly visual mammal closely related to primates.
Hippocampal place cell sequences have been hypothesized to serve as diverse purposes as the induction of synaptic plasticity, formation and consolidation of long-term memories, or navigation and planning. During spatial behaviors of rodents, sequential firing of place cells at the theta timescale (known as theta sequences) encodes running trajectories, which can be considered as one-dimensional behavioral sequences of traversed locations. In a two-dimensional space, however, each single location can be visited along arbitrary one-dimensional running trajectories. Thus, a place cell will generally take part in multiple different theta sequences, raising questions about how this two-dimensional topology can be reconciled with the idea of hippocampal sequences underlying memory of (one-dimensional) episodes. Here, we propose a computational model of cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) and dentate gyrus (DG), where sensorimotor input drives the direction-dependent (extrinsic) theta sequences within CA3 reflecting the two-dimensional spatial topology, whereas the intrahippocampal CA3-DG projections concurrently produce intrinsic sequences that are independent of the specific running trajectory. Consistent with experimental data, intrinsic theta sequences are less prominent, but can nevertheless be detected during theta activity, thereby serving as running-direction independent landmark cues. We hypothesize that the intrinsic sequences largely reflect replay and preplay activity during non-theta states.