Although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is responsible for more human deaths each year than influenza, its pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. Here high-resolution quantitative imaging, bioenergetics measurements and mitochondrial membrane potential- and redox-sensitive dyes are used to define RSV's impact on host mitochondria for the first time, delineating RSV-induced microtubule/dynein-dependent mitochondrial perinuclear clustering, and translocation towards the microtubule-organizing centre. These changes are concomitant with impaired mitochondrial respiration, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Strikingly, agents that target microtubule integrity the dynein motor protein, or inhibit mitochondrial ROS production strongly suppresses RSV virus production, including in a mouse model with concomitantly reduced virus-induced lung inflammation. The results establish RSV's unique ability to co-opt host cell mitochondria to facilitate viral infection, revealing the RSV-mitochondrial interface for the first time as a viable target for therapeutic intervention.
Data are being uploaded to Dryad (DOI: https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.2n3162c). Customised scripts for quantitative analyses of mitochondrial distribution and results are publicly available throughhttps://gitlab.erc.monash.edu.au/mmi/mito
Data from: Respiratory Syncytial Virus co-opts host mitochondrial function to favour infectious virus productionDryad Digital Repository, doi:10.5061/dryad.j1fd7.
- David Andrew Jans
- David Andrew Jans
- David Andrew Jans
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in accordance with The ACT Animal Welfare Act (1992) and the Australian Code of Practice for the Care and use of Animals for Scientific Purposes. The study protocol was approved by the Committee for Ethics in Animal Experimentation of the University of Canberra (project reference number CEAE 14-15).
Human subjects: Primary human bronchial epithelial cells (pBECs) were obtained from 4 healthy individuals who had no history of smoking or lung disease, had normal lung function, and gave written, informed consent to participate and have their data published, in accordance with the procedures in accordance with the procedures approved by the University of Newcastle Human Ethics Committee (project reference no. H-163-1205), in keeping with the guidelines of the National Institutes of Health, American Academy of Allergy and Immunology.
- Agnieszka Chacinska, University of Warsaw, Poland
© 2019, Hu et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Diverse chemical modifications fine-tune the function and metabolism of tRNA. Although tRNA modification is universal in all kingdoms of life, profiles of modifications, their functions, and physiological roles have not been elucidated in most organisms including the human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis. To identify physiologically important modifications, we surveyed the tRNA of Mtb, using tRNA sequencing (tRNA-seq) and genome-mining. Homology searches identified 23 candidate tRNA modifying enzymes that are predicted to create 16 tRNA modifications across all tRNA species. Reverse transcription-derived error signatures in tRNA-seq predicted the sites and presence of nine modifications. Several chemical treatments prior to tRNA-seq expanded the number of predictable modifications. Deletion of Mtb genes encoding two modifying enzymes, TruB and MnmA, eliminated their respective tRNA modifications, validating the presence of modified sites in tRNA species. Furthermore, the absence of mnmA attenuated Mtb growth in macrophages, suggesting that MnmA-dependent tRNA uridine sulfation contributes to Mtb intracellular growth. Our results lay the foundation for unveiling the roles of tRNA modifications in Mtb pathogenesis and developing new therapeutics against tuberculosis.
Communication is crucial for organismic interactions, from bacteria, to fungi, to humans. Humans may use the visual sense to monitor the environment before starting acoustic interactions. In comparison, fungi, lacking a visual system, rely on a cell-to-cell dialogue based on secreted signaling molecules to coordinate cell fusion and establish hyphal networks. Within this dialogue, hyphae alternate between sending and receiving signals. This pattern can be visualized via the putative signaling protein Soft (SofT), and the mitogen-activated protein kinase MAK-2 (MakB) which are recruited in an alternating oscillatory manner to the respective cytoplasmic membrane or nuclei of interacting hyphae. Here, we show that signal oscillations already occur in single hyphae of Arthrobotrys flagrans in the absence of potential fusion partners (cell monologue). They were in the same phase as growth oscillations. In contrast to the anti-phasic oscillations observed during the cell dialogue, SofT and MakB displayed synchronized oscillations in phase during the monologue. Once two fusion partners came into each other’s vicinity, their oscillation frequencies slowed down (entrainment phase) and transit into anti-phasic synchronization of the two cells’ oscillations with frequencies of 104±28 s and 117±19 s, respectively. Single-cell oscillations, transient entrainment, and anti-phasic oscillations were reproduced by a mathematical model where nearby hyphae can absorb and secrete a limited molecular signaling component into a shared extracellular space. We show that intracellular Ca2+ concentrations oscillate in two approaching hyphae, and depletion of Ca2+ from the medium affected vesicle-driven extension of the hyphal tip, abolished the cell monologue and the anti-phasic synchronization of two hyphae. Our results suggest that single hyphae engage in a ‘monologue’ that may be used for exploration of the environment and can dynamically shift their extracellular signaling systems into a ‘dialogue’ to initiate hyphal fusion.