Much of the vertebrate skeleton develops from cartilage templates that are progressively remodeled into bone. Lineage tracing studies in mouse suggest that chondrocytes within these templates persist and become osteoblasts, yet the underlying mechanisms of this process and whether chondrocytes can generate other derivatives remain unclear. We find that zebrafish cartilages undergo extensive remodeling and vascularization during juvenile stages to generate fat-filled bones. Growth plate chondrocytes marked by sox10 and col2a1a contribute to osteoblasts, marrow adipocytes, and mesenchymal cells within adult bones. At the edge of the hypertrophic zone, chondrocytes re-enter the cell cycle and express leptin receptor (lepr), suggesting conversion into progenitors. Further, mutation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (mmp9) results in delayed growth plate remodeling and fewer marrow adipocytes. Our data support Mmp9-dependent growth plate remodeling and conversion of chondrocytes into osteoblasts and marrow adipocytes as conserved features of bony vertebrates.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- J Gage Crump
- D'Juan T Farmer
- Dion Giovannone
- Joanna Smeeton
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols (#20771) of the University of Southern California.
- Clifford J Rosen, Maine Medical Center Research Institute, United States
© 2019, Giovannone et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
We have identified active enhancers in the mouse cerebellum at embryonic and postnatal stages which provides a view of novel enhancers active during cerebellar development. The majority of cerebellar enhancers have dynamic activity between embryonic and postnatal development. Cerebellar enhancers were enriched for neural transcription factor binding sites with temporally specific expression. Putative gene targets displayed spatially restricted expression patterns, indicating cell-type specific expression regulation. Functional analysis of target genes indicated that enhancers regulate processes spanning several developmental epochs such as specification, differentiation and maturation. We use these analyses to discover one novel regulator and one novel marker of cerebellar development: Bhlhe22 and Pax3, respectively. We identified an enrichment of de novo mutations and variants associated with autism spectrum disorder in cerebellar enhancers. Furthermore, by comparing our data with relevant brain development ENCODE histone profiles and cerebellar single-cell datasets we have been able to generalize and expand on the presented analyses, respectively. We have made the results of our analyses available online in the Developing Mouse Cerebellum Enhancer Atlas (https://goldowitzlab.shinyapps.io/developing_mouse_cerebellum_enhancer_atlas/), where our dataset can be efficiently queried, curated and exported by the scientific community to facilitate future research efforts. Our study provides a valuable resource for studying the dynamics of gene expression regulation by enhancers in the developing cerebellum and delivers a rich dataset of novel gene-enhancer associations providing a basis for future in-depth studies in the cerebellum.
The blood system is supported by hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) found in a specialized microenvironment called the niche. Many different niche cell types support HSPCs, however how they interact and their ultrastructure has been difficult to define. Here we show that single endogenous HSPCs can be tracked by light microscopy, then identified by serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) at multiscale levels. Using the zebrafish larval kidney marrow (KM) niche as a model, we followed single fluorescently-labeled HSPCs by light sheet microscopy, then confirmed their exact location in a 3D SBEM dataset. We found a variety of different configurations of HSPCs and surrounding niche cells, suggesting there could be functional heterogeneity in sites of HSPC lodgement. Our approach also allowed us to identify dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dbh) positive ganglion cells as a previously uncharacterized functional cell type in the HSPC niche. By integrating multiple imaging modalities, we could resolve the ultrastructure of single rare cells deep in live tissue and define all contacts between an HSPC and its surrounding niche cell types.