(A) Visual Simon task. Fixation was followed by a colored square, with color indicating the required response hand (according to the response mappings, which were displayed on the bottom of the screen throughout the experiment). Response hand either matched the side of stimulus presentation (congruent trial) or did not match (incongruent trial). Incongruent trials introduced response-conflict. In Experiment 1 (EEG), responses were made with the hands, whereas in Experiment 3.1. and 3.2. (TMS and EMG) they were made with the feet so that the hand muscles were task-unrelated. (B) Visual stop-signal task used in Experiment 1 to evoke neural signature of motor inhibition. (C) Auditory Simon task, used in Experiment 2. Intraoperative recordings were performed on participants with partially occluded vision, therefore the experiment was conducted entirely in the auditory domain. A high-frequency tone indicated a right hand response, a low frequency tone indicated a left hand response. Response-conflict was created through incongruent laterality of the stimulus presentation, same as in the visual experiment used in Experiments 1, 3.1., and 3.2.