Many physiological processes exhibit circadian rhythms driven by cellular clocks composed of interlinked activating and repressing elements. To investigate temporal regulation in this molecular oscillator, we combined mouse genetic approaches and analyses of interactions of key circadian proteins with each other and with clock gene promoters. We show that transcriptional activators control BRD4-PTEFb recruitment to E-box-containing circadian promoters. During the activating phase of the circadian cycle, the lysine acetyltransferase TIP60 acetylates the transcriptional activator BMAL1 leading to recruitment of BRD4 and the pause release factor P-TEFb, followed by productive elongation of circadian transcripts. We propose that the control of BRD4-P-TEFb recruitment is a novel temporal checkpoint in the circadian clock cycle.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Henrik Oster
- Gregor Eichele
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: Mouse handling was carried out in accordance with the German Law on Animal Welfare and was ethically approved and licensed by the Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety of the State of Lower Saxony (license numbers 33.11.42502-04/072/07 and 33.9-42502-04-12/0719).
- Asifa Akhtar, Max Planck Institute for Immunobiology and Epigenetics, Germany
© 2019, Petkau et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancers (mCRPCs) are treated with therapies that antagonize the androgen receptor (AR). Nearly all patients develop resistance to AR-targeted therapies (ARTs). Our previous work identified CREB5 as an upregulated target gene in human mCRPC that promoted resistance to all clinically approved ART. The mechanisms by which CREB5 promotes progression of mCRPC or other cancers remains elusive. Integrating ChIP-seq and rapid immunoprecipitation and mass spectroscopy of endogenous proteins, we report that cells overexpressing CREB5 demonstrate extensive reprogramming of nuclear protein–protein interactions in response to the ART agent enzalutamide. Specifically, CREB5 physically interacts with AR, the pioneering actor FOXA1, and other known co-factors of AR and FOXA1 at transcription regulatory elements recently found to be active in mCRPC patients. We identified a subset of CREB5/FOXA1 co-interacting nuclear factors that have critical functions for AR transcription (GRHL2, HOXB13) while others (TBX3, NFIC) regulated cell viability and ART resistance and were amplified or overexpressed in mCRPC. Upon examining the nuclear protein interactions and the impact of CREB5 expression on the mCRPC patient transcriptome, we found that CREB5 was associated with Wnt signaling and epithelial to mesenchymal transitions, implicating these pathways in CREB5/FOXA1-mediated ART resistance. Overall, these observations define the molecular interactions among CREB5, FOXA1, and pathways that promote ART resistance.
Mitotically stable random monoallelic gene expression (RME) is documented for a small percentage of autosomal genes. We developed an in vivo genetic model to study the role of enhancers in RME using high-resolution single-cell analysis of natural killer (NK) cell receptor gene expression and enhancer deletions in the mouse germline. Enhancers of the RME NK receptor genes were accessible and enriched in H3K27ac on silent and active alleles alike in cells sorted according to allelic expression status, suggesting enhancer activation and gene expression status can be decoupled. In genes with multiple enhancers, enhancer deletion reduced gene expression frequency, in one instance converting the universally expressed gene encoding NKG2D into an RME gene, recapitulating all aspects of natural RME including mitotic stability of both the active and silent states. The results support the binary model of enhancer action, and suggest that RME is a consequence of general properties of gene regulation by enhancers rather than an RME-specific epigenetic program. Therefore, many and perhaps all genes may be subject to some degree of RME. Surprisingly, this was borne out by analysis of several genes that define different major hematopoietic lineages, that were previously thought to be universally expressed within those lineages: the genes encoding NKG2D, CD45, CD8α, and Thy-1. We propose that intrinsically probabilistic gene allele regulation is a general property of enhancer-controlled gene expression, with previously documented RME representing an extreme on a broad continuum.