We report the crystal structure of nuclear import receptor Importin-9 bound to its cargo, the histones H2A-H2B. Importin-9 wraps around the core, globular region of H2A-H2B to form an extensive interface. The nature of this interface coupled with quantitative analysis of deletion mutants of H2A-H2B suggest that the NLS-like sequences in the H2A-H2B tails play a minor role in import. Importin-9•H2A-H2B is reminiscent of interactions between histones and histone chaperones in that it precludes H2A-H2B interactions with DNA and H3-H4 as seen in the nucleosome. Like many histone chaperones, which prevent inappropriate non-nucleosomal interactions, Importin-9 also sequesters H2A-H2B from DNA. Importin-9 appears to act as a storage chaperone for H2A-H2B while escorting it to the nucleus. Surprisingly, RanGTP does not dissociate Importin-9•H2A-H2B but assembles into a RanGTP•Importin-9•H2A-H2B complex. The presence of Ran in the complex, however, modulates Imp9-H2A-H2B interactions to facilitate its dissociation by DNA and assembly into a nucleosome.
Diffraction data have been deposited in PDB under the accession code 6N1Z
Importin cargo complexProtein Data Bank, 6N1Z.
- Yuh Min Chook
- Yuh Min Chook
- Yuh Min Chook
- Abhilash Padavannil
- Tolga Cagatay
- Jenny Jiou
- Chad A Brautigam
- Diana R Tomchick
- Andrej Sali
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Andrea Musacchio, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology, Germany
© 2019, Padavannil et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Understanding the mechanism by which streptomycin binds to the small subunit of the mitoribosome may help researchers design less toxic derivatives of this antibiotic.
The mitoribosome regulates cellular energy production, and its dysfunction is associated with aging. Inhibition of the mitoribosome can be caused by off-target binding of antimicrobial drugs and was shown to be coupled with a bilateral decreased visual acuity. Previously, we reported mitochondria-specific protein aspects of the mitoribosome, and in this article we present a 2.4-Å resolution structure of the small subunit in a complex with the anti-tuberculosis drug streptomycin that reveals roles of non-protein components. We found iron–sulfur clusters that are coordinated by different mitoribosomal proteins, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) associated with rRNA insertion, and posttranslational modifications. This is the first evidence of inter-protein coordination of iron–sulfur, and the finding of iron–sulfur clusters and NAD as fundamental building blocks of the mitoribosome directly links to mitochondrial disease and aging. We also report details of streptomycin interactions, suggesting that the mitoribosome-bound streptomycin is likely to be in hydrated gem-diol form and can be subjected to other modifications by the cellular milieu. The presented approach of adding antibiotics to cultured cells can be used to define their native structures in a bound form under more physiological conditions, and since streptomycin is a widely used drug for treatment, the newly resolved features can serve as determinants for targeting.