The orange arrows indicate the yields for the maximum and minimum values of in Equation (5). The green arrows show the yields when . The blue arrows mark the free radical yields averaged over the phase of the ELF field, Equation (6) . (a) When is linear in , the effect of the GMF and the ELF field together equals that of the GMF alone. (b) When is non-linear, the effects of GMF plus ELF and GMF-alone differ. in (b) has been drawn with a negative curvature (concave downward), with the result that and (Equation (7) and (10)). A positive curvature (concave upward) would give the opposite signs.