1. Ecology
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5α-cyprinol sulfate, a bile salt from fish, induces diel vertical migration in Daphnia

  1. Meike Anika Hahn  Is a corresponding author
  2. Christoph Effertz
  3. Laurent Bigler
  4. Eric von Elert
  1. University of Cologne, Germany
  2. University of Zurich, Switzerland
Research Article
  • Cited 7
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Cite this article as: eLife 2019;8:e44791 doi: 10.7554/eLife.44791

Abstract

Prey are under selection to minimize predation losses. In aquatic environments many prey use chemical cues released by predators, which initiate predator-avoidance. A prominent example of behavioural predator-avoidance constitutes diel vertical migration (DVM) in the freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia spp., which is induced by chemical cues (kairomones) released by planktivorous fish. In a bioassay-guided approach using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry we isolated the kairomone from fish incubation water and identified it as 5α-cyprinol sulfate inducing DVM in Daphnia at picomolar concentrations. The role of 5α-cyprinol sulfate in lipid digestion in fish explains why from an evolutionary perspective fish has not stopped releasing 5α-cyprinol sulfate despite the disadvantages for the releaser. The identification of the DVM-inducing kairomone enables investigating its spatial and temporal distribution and the underlying molecular mechanism of its perception. Furthermore, it allows to test if fish-mediated inducible defenses in other aquatic invertebrates are triggered by the same compound.

Article and author information

Author details

  1. Meike Anika Hahn

    Department of Biology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
    For correspondence
    meike.hahn@uni-koeln.de
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0001-5090-0849
  2. Christoph Effertz

    Department of Biology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  3. Laurent Bigler

    Department of Chemistry, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  4. Eric von Elert

    Department of Biology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0001-7758-716X

Funding

No external funding was received for this work.

Reviewing Editor

  1. Georg Pohnert, University of Jena, Germany

Publication history

  1. Received: December 29, 2018
  2. Accepted: May 2, 2019
  3. Accepted Manuscript published: May 2, 2019 (version 1)
  4. Version of Record published: June 11, 2019 (version 2)

Copyright

© 2019, Hahn et al.

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.

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