Previously, we found that phagocytic cells ingest bacteria directly from the cytosol of infected cells without killing the initially infected cell (Steele et al. 2016). Here, we explored the events immediately following bacterial transfer. Francisella tularensis bacteria acquired from infected cells were found within double-membrane vesicles partially composed from the donor cell plasma membrane. As with phagosomal escape, the F. tularensis Type VI Secretion System (T6SS) was required for vacuole escape. We constructed a T6SS inducible strain and established conditions where this strain is trapped in vacuoles of cells infected through bacterial transfer. Using this strain we identified bacterial transfer events in the lungs of infected mice, demonstrating that this process occurs in infected animals. These data and electron microscopy analysis of the transfer event revealed that macrophages acquire cytoplasm and membrane components of other cells through a process that is distinct from, but related to phagocytosis.
- Thomas H Kawula
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocol #4946 at Washington State University.
- Sophie Helaine, Imperial College London, United Kingdom
© 2019, Steele et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
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Cytokinesis, which enables the physical separation of daughter cells once mitosis has been completed, is executed in fungal and animal cells by a contractile actin- and myosin-based ring (CAR). In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the formin For3 nucleates actin cables and also co-operates for CAR assembly during cytokinesis. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate essential adaptive responses in eukaryotic organisms to environmental changes. We show that the stress-activated protein kinase pathway (SAPK) and its effector, MAPK Sty1, downregulates CAR assembly in S. pombe when its integrity becomes compromised during cytoskeletal damage and stress by reducing For3 levels. Accurate control of For3 levels by the SAPK pathway may thus represent a novel regulatory mechanism of cytokinesis outcome in response to environmental cues. Conversely, SAPK signaling favors CAR assembly and integrity in its close relative Schizosaccharomyces japonicus, revealing a remarkable evolutionary divergence of this response within the fission yeast clade.
Properdin stabilizes the alternative C3 convertase (C3bBb), whereas its role as pattern-recognition molecule mediating complement activation is disputed for decades. Previously, we have found that soluble collectin-12 (sCL-12) synergizes complement alternative pathway (AP) activation. However, whether this observation is C3 dependent is unknown. By application of the C3-inhibitor Cp40, we found that properdin in normal human serum bound to Aspergillus fumigatus solely in a C3b-dependent manner. Cp40 also prevented properdin binding when properdin-depleted serum reconstituted with purified properdin was applied, in analogy with the findings achieved by C3-depleted serum. However, when opsonized with sCL-12, properdin bound in a C3-independent manner exclusively via its tetrameric structure and directed in situ C3bBb assembly. In conclusion, a prerequisite for properdin binding and in situ C3bBb assembly was the initial docking of sCL-12. This implies a new important function of properdin in host defense bridging pattern recognition and specific AP activation.