Neonatal inflammation is common and has lasting consequences for adult health. We investigated the lasting effects of a single bout of neonatal inflammation on adult respiratory control in the form of respiratory motor plasticity induced by acute intermittent hypoxia, which likely compensates and stabilizes breathing during injury or disease and has significant therapeutic potential. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation at postnatal day four induced lasting impairments in two distinct pathways to adult respiratory plasticity in male and female rats. Despite a lack of adult pro-inflammatory gene expression or alterations in glial morphology, one mechanistic pathway to plasticity was restored by acute, adult anti-inflammatory treatment, suggesting ongoing inflammatory signaling after neonatal inflammation. An alternative pathway to plasticity was not restored by anti-inflammatory treatment, but was evoked by exogenous adenosine receptor agonism, suggesting upstream impairment, likely astrocytic-dependent. Thus, the respiratory control network is vulnerable to early-life inflammation, limiting respiratory compensation to adult disease or injury.
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Source data are available for all figures.
- Adrianne G Huxtable
- Jyoti J Watters
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee protocols (#18-02) of the University of Oregon. All surgeries were performed under isoflurane or urethane anesthesia and every effort was made to minimize pain, distress, or discomfort.
- Jan-Marino Ramirez, Seattle Children's Research Institute and University of Washington, United States
© 2019, Hocker et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). A hallmark of ALS/FTD pathology is the presence of dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins, produced from both sense GGGGCC (poly-GA, poly-GP, poly-GR) and antisense CCCCGG (poly-PR, poly-PG, poly-PA) transcripts. Translation of sense DPRs, such as poly-GA and poly-GR, depends on non-canonical (non-AUG) initiation codons. Here, we provide evidence for canonical AUG-dependent translation of two antisense DPRs, poly-PR and poly-PG. A single AUG is required for synthesis of poly-PR, one of the most toxic DPRs. Unexpectedly, we found redundancy between three AUG codons necessary for poly-PG translation. Further, the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2D (EIF2D), which was previously implicated in sense DPR synthesis, is not required for AUG-dependent poly-PR or poly-PG translation, suggesting that distinct translation initiation factors control DPR synthesis from sense and antisense transcripts. Our findings on DPR synthesis from the C9ORF72 locus may be broadly applicable to many other nucleotide repeat expansion disorders.
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