Tumor suppressor SMARCB1 suppresses super-enhancers to govern hESC lineage determination
The SWI/SNF complex is a critical regulator of pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and individual subunits have varied and specific roles during development and in diseases. The core subunit SMARCB1 is required for early embryonic survival, and mutations can give rise to atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs) in the pediatric central nervous system. We report that in contrast to other studied systems, SMARCB1 represses bivalent genes in hESCs and antagonizes chromatin accessibility at super-enhancers. Moreover, and consistent with its established role as a CNS tumor suppressor, we find that SMARCB1 is essential for neural induction but dispensable for mesodermal or endodermal differentiation. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that SMARCB1 is essential for hESC super-enhancer silencing in neural differentiation conditions. This genomic assessment of hESC chromatin regulation by SMARCB1 reveals a novel positive regulatory function at super-enhancers and a unique lineage-specific role in regulating hESC differentiation.
All raw RNAseq and ATACseq data have been made available in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (Edgar, 2002), with accession number GSE128351.
Tumor suppressor SMARCB1 suppresses super-enhancers to govern hESC 2 lineage determinationNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE128351.
Article and author information
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (Z01 ES071006-18)
- Trevor K Archer
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (GM120018)
- Lee F Langer
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Michael R Green, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, United States
- Received: January 31, 2019
- Accepted: April 29, 2019
- Accepted Manuscript published: April 29, 2019 (version 1)
- Version of Record published: May 28, 2019 (version 2)
This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
- Page views
Article citation count generated by polling the highest count across the following sources: Crossref, PubMed Central, Scopus.
Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)
Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)
Cite this article (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)
- Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
- Chromosomes and Gene Expression
In nucleosomes, histone N-terminal tails exist in dynamic equilibrium between free/accessible and collapsed/DNA-bound states. The latter state is expected to impact histone N-termini availability to the epigenetic machinery. Notably, H3 tail acetylation (e.g. K9ac, K14ac, K18ac) is linked to increased H3K4me3 engagement by the BPTF PHD finger, but it is unknown if this mechanism has a broader extension. Here, we show that H3 tail acetylation promotes nucleosomal accessibility to other H3K4 methyl readers, and importantly, extends to H3K4 writers, notably methyltransferase MLL1. This regulation is not observed on peptide substrates yet occurs on the cis H3 tail, as determined with fully-defined heterotypic nucleosomes. In vivo, H3 tail acetylation is directly and dynamically coupled with cis H3K4 methylation levels. Together, these observations reveal an acetylation ‘chromatin switch’ on the H3 tail that modulates read-write accessibility in nucleosomes and resolves the long-standing question of why H3K4me3 levels are coupled with H3 acetylation.
- Chromosomes and Gene Expression
The consequences of aneuploidy have traditionally been studied in cell and animal models in which the extrachromosomal DNA is from the same species. Here, we explore a fundamental question concerning the impact of aneuploidy on systemic metabolism using a non-mosaic transchromosomic mouse model (TcMAC21) carrying a near-complete human chromosome 21. Independent of diets and housing temperatures, TcMAC21 mice consume more calories, are hyperactive and hypermetabolic, remain consistently lean and profoundly insulin sensitive, and have a higher body temperature. The hypermetabolism and elevated thermogenesis are likely due to a combination of increased activity level and sarcolipin overexpression in the skeletal muscle, resulting in futile sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) activity and energy dissipation. Mitochondrial respiration is also markedly increased in skeletal muscle to meet the high ATP demand created by the futile cycle and hyperactivity. This serendipitous discovery provides proof-of-concept that sarcolipin-mediated thermogenesis via uncoupling of the SERCA pump can be harnessed to promote energy expenditure and metabolic health.