Cancer cells usually exhibit aberrant cell signaling and metabolic reprogramming. However, mechanisms of crosstalk between these processes remain elusive. Here we show that in an in vivo tumor model expressing oncogenic Drosophila Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (Hipk), tumor cells display elevated aerobic glycolysis. Mechanistically, elevated Hipk drives transcriptional upregulation of Drosophila Myc (dMyc; MYC in vertebrates) likely through convergence of multiple perturbed signaling cascades. dMyc induces robust expression of pfk2 (encoding 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase; PFKFB in vertebrates) among other glycolytic genes. Pfk2 catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, which acts as a potent allosteric activator of Phosphofructokinase (Pfk) and thus stimulates glycolysis. Pfk2 and Pfk in turn are required to sustain dMyc protein accumulation post-transcriptionally, establishing a positive feedback loop. Disruption of the loop abrogates tumorous growth. Together, our study demonstrates a reciprocal stimulation of Myc and aerobic glycolysis and identifies the Pfk2-Pfk governed committed step of glycolysis as a metabolic vulnerability during tumorigenesis.
- Esther M Verheyen
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Jason Tennessen, Indiana University, United States
© 2019, Wong et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)
Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)
Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)
Arginine methyltransferase PRMT7 is associated with human breast cancer metastasis. Endosomal FAK signalling is critical for cancer cell migration. Here we identified the pivotal roles of PRMT7 in promoting endosomal FAK signalling activation during breast cancer metastasis. PRMT7 exerted its functions through binding to scaffold protein SHANK2 and catalyzing di-methylation of SHANK2 at R240. SHANK2 R240 methylation exposed ANK domain by disrupting its SPN-ANK domain blockade, promoting in co-accumulation of dynamin2, talin, FAK, cortactin with SHANK2 on endosomes. In addition, SHANK2 R240 methylation activated endosomal FAK/cortactin signals in vitro and in vivo. Consistently, all the levels of PRMT7, methylated SHANK2, FAK Y397 phosphorylation and cortactin Y421 phosphorylation were correlated with aggressive clinical breast cancer tissues. These findings characterize the PRMT7-dependent SHANK2 methylation as a key player in mediating endosomal FAK signals activation, also point to the value of SHANK2 R240 methylation as a target for breast cancer metastasis.
Notch signaling regulates squamous cell proliferation and differentiation and is frequently disrupted in squamous cell carcinomas, in which Notch is tumor suppressive. Here, we show that conditional activation of Notch in squamous cells activates a context-specific gene expression program through lineage-specific regulatory elements. Among direct Notch target genes are multiple DNA damage response genes, including IER5, which we show is required for Notch-induced differentiation of squamous carcinoma cells and TERT-immortalized keratinocytes. IER5 is epistatic to PPP2R2A, a gene that encodes the PP2A B55a subunit, which we show interacts with IER5 in cells and in purified systems. Thus, Notch and DNA-damage response pathways converge in squamous cells on common genes that promote differentiation, which may serve to eliminate damaged cells from the proliferative pool. We further propose that crosstalk involving Notch and PP2A enables tuning and integration of Notch signaling with other pathways that regulate squamous differentiation.