Climbing fiber inputs to the cerebellum encode error signals that instruct learning. Recently, evidence has accumulated to suggest that the cerebellum is also involved in the processing of reward. To study how rewarding events are encoded, we recorded the activity of climbing fibers when monkeys were engaged in an eye movement task. At the beginning of each trial, the monkeys were cued to the size of the reward that would be delivered upon successful completion of the trial. Climbing fiber activity increased when the monkeys were presented with a cue indicating a large reward size. Reward size did not modulate activity at reward delivery or during eye movements. Comparison between climbing fiber and simple spike activity indicated different interactions for coding of movement and reward. These results indicate that climbing fibers encode the expected reward size and suggest a general role of the cerebellum in associative learning beyond error correction.
The data used in this paper is available in:https://github.com/MatiJlab
- Mati Joshua
- Mati Joshua
- Noga Larry
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All the procedures described in this paper were approved in advance by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (ethics approval number MD15145854) and were in strict compliance with the National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
- Jennifer L Raymond, Stanford University School of Medicine, United States
© 2019, Larry et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) transform convergent excitatory corticostriatal inputs into an inhibitory signal that shapes basal ganglia output. This process is fine-tuned by striatal GABAergic interneurons (GINs), which receive overlapping cortical inputs and mediate rapid corticostriatal feedforward inhibition of SPNs. Adding another level of control, cholinergic interneurons (CINs), which are also vigorously activated by corticostriatal excitation, can disynaptically inhibit SPNs by activating α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on various GINs. Measurements of this disynaptic inhibitory pathway, however, indicate that it is too slow to compete with direct GIN-mediated feedforward inhibition. Moreover, functional nAChRs are also present on populations of GINs that respond only weakly to phasic activation of CINs, such as parvalbumin-positive fast-spiking interneurons (PV-FSIs), making the overall role of nAChRs in shaping striatal synaptic integration unclear. Using acute striatal slices from mice we show that upon synchronous optogenetic activation of corticostriatal projections blockade of α4β2 nAChRs shortened SPN spike latencies and increased postsynaptic depolarizations. The nAChR-dependent inhibition was mediated by downstream GABA release, and data suggest that the GABA source was not limited to GINs that respond strongly to phasic CIN activation. In particular, the observed decrease in spike latency caused by nAChR blockade was associated with a diminished frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in SPNs, a parallel hyperpolarization of PV-FSIs, and was occluded by pharmacologically preventing cortical activation of PV-FSIs. Taken together, we describe a role for tonic (as opposed to phasic) activation of nAChRs in striatal function. We conclude that tonic activation of nAChRs by CINs maintains a GABAergic brake on cortically-driven striatal output by ‘priming’ feedforward inhibition, a process that may shape SPN spike timing, striatal processing, and synaptic plasticity.
Understanding neuronal representations of odor-evoked activities and their progressive transformation from the sensory level to higher brain centers features one of the major aims in olfactory neuroscience. Here, we investigated how odor information is transformed and represented in higher-order neurons of the lateral horn, one of the higher olfactory centers implicated in determining innate behavior, using Drosophila melanogaster. We focused on a subset of third-order glutamatergic lateral horn neurons (LHNs) and characterized their odor coding properties in relation to their presynaptic partner neurons, the projection neurons (PNs) by two-photon functional imaging. We show that odors evoke reproducible, stereotypic, and odor-specific response patterns in LHNs. Notably, odor-evoked responses in these neurons are valence-specific in a way that their response amplitude is positively correlated with innate odor preferences. We postulate that this valence-specific activity is the result of integrating inputs from multiple olfactory channels through second-order neurons. GRASP and micro-lesioning experiments provide evidence that glutamatergic LHNs obtain their major excitatory input from uniglomerular PNs, while they receive an odor-specific inhibition through inhibitory multiglomerular PNs. In summary, our study indicates that odor representations in glutamatergic LHNs encode hedonic valence and odor identity and primarily retain the odor coding properties of second-order neurons.