(A) E. coli cells subjected to different antibiotics, nutrient conditions, protein overexpression/depletion, and single gene deletions (Nonejuie et al., 2013; Si et al., 2017; Harris and Theriot, 2016; Vadia et al., 2017; Campos et al., 2018; Gray et al., 2019), follow the scaling relation between population-averaged surface area () and volume (): (legend on the right, 5011 data points; Supplementary file 1). Best fit shown in dashed black line for steady-state data from Si et al. (2017) gives γ = 6.24 ± 0.04, and a power law exponent 0.671 ± 0.006. For single deletion Keio set (Campos et al., 2018), the best fit curve is . (B) Aspect-ratio distribution for cells growing in steady-state, corresponding to the data in (A) (Si et al., 2017). (Inset) Relationship between and aspect ratio for a sphero-cylinder (red line). Best fit from (A) shown with horizontal green band gives aspect ratio 4.14 ± 0.17. (C) vs growth rate. Model line uses and the nutrient growth law (Equation 1). Data from Si et al. (2017). (D) - relation for various bacterial cell shapes. Black dashed line: Small, medium, and large rod-shaped cells with a conserved aspect ratio of 4 follow the relation: . Gray dashed line: Filamentous cells with constant cell width follow the scaling law: . Red dashed line: Spheres follow . (E) vs for 49 different bacterial species (Sato, 2000; Trachtenberg, 2004; Pelling et al., 2005; Wright et al., 2015; Deforet et al., 2015; Desmarais et al., 2015; Harris and Theriot, 2016; Ojkic et al., 2016; Quach et al., 2016; Carabetta et al., 2016; Chattopadhyay et al., 2017; Lopez-Garrido et al., 2018; Gray et al., 2019), and one rod-shaped Archaea (H. volcanii) (Supplementary file 2). Rod-shaped cells lie on line, above the line are Spirochete and below the line are coccoid. For coccoid S. aureus exposed to different antibiotics best fit is , with preserved aspect ratio η = 1.38 ± 0.18. Red dashed line is for spheres.