Synaptic connections are random, with each neuron receiving on average 80 synaptic inputs and weights set to ensure ongoing asynchronous activity in the network. The simulations use exact integration, but spike spike times are aligned to the simulation grid of 0.1 ms. Simulations are shown for a homogeneous population (left), where the membrane time constant, as well as the excitatory and inhibitory time constant, are the same for all neurons. In the heterogeneous population (right), these constants are different for each neuron, randomly set between 90% and 110% of the constant values used in the homogeneous population. Simulations were performed with NEST 2.16 (blue, Linssen et al., 2018, RRID:SCR_002963), NEURON 7.6 (orange; RRID:SCR_005393), Brian 1.4.4 (red), and Brian 126.96.36.199 (shades of green, Stimberg et al., 2019b, RRID:SCR_002998). Benchmarks were run under Python 2.7.16 on an Intel Core i9-7920X machine with 12 processor cores. For NEST and one of the Brian 2 simulations (light green), simulations made use of all processor cores by using 12 threads via the OpenMP framework. Brian 2 ‘runtime’ simulations execute C++ code via the weave library, while ‘standalone’ code executes an independent binary file compiled from C++ code (see Appendix 1 for details). Simulation times do not include the one-off times to prepare the simulation and generate synaptic connections as these will become a vanishing fraction of the total time for runs with longer simulated times. Simulations were run for a biological time of 10 s for small networks (8000 neurons or fewer) and for 1 s for large networks. The times plotted here are the best out of three repetitions. Note that Brian 1.4.4 does not support exact integration for a heterogeneous population and has therefore not been included for that benchmark.