Exercise promotes the formation of intracellular junctions in skeletal muscle between stacks of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) cisternae and extensions of transverse-tubules (TT) that increase co-localization of proteins required for store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Here we report that SOCE, peak Ca2+ transient amplitude and muscle force production during repetitive stimulation are increased after exercise in parallel with the time course of TT association with SR-stacks. Unexpectedly, exercise also activated constitutive Ca2+ entry coincident with a modest decrease in total releasable Ca2+ store content. Importantly, this decrease in releasable Ca2+ store content observed after exercise was reversed by repetitive high-frequency stimulation, consistent with enhanced SOCE. The functional benefits of exercise on SOCE, constitutive Ca2+ entry and muscle force production were lost in mice with muscle-specific loss of Orai1 function. These results indicate that TT association with SR-stacks enhances Orai1-dependent SOCE to optimize Ca2+ dynamics and muscle contractile function during acute exercise.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Robert T Dirksen
- Feliciano Protasi
- Feliciano Protasi
- Antonio Michelucci
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All animal studies were designed to minimize animal suffering and were approved by the local University Committee on Animal Resources and Animal Ethical Committees at the University of Chieti and the University of Rochester, respectively.(UCAR-2006-114E).
- Richard S Lewis, Stanford University School of Medicine, United States
© 2019, Michelucci et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The ATPase p97 (also known as VCP, Cdc48) has crucial functions in a variety of important cellular processes such as protein quality control, organellar homeostasis, and DNA damage repair, and its de-regulation is linked to neuromuscular diseases and cancer. p97 is tightly controlled by numerous regulatory cofactors, but the full range and function of the p97–cofactor network is unknown. Here, we identify the hitherto uncharacterized FAM104 proteins as a conserved family of p97 interactors. The two human family members VCP nuclear cofactor family member 1 and 2 (VCF1/2) bind p97 directly via a novel, alpha-helical motif and associate with p97-UFD1-NPL4 and p97-UBXN2B complexes in cells. VCF1/2 localize to the nucleus and promote the nuclear import of p97. Loss of VCF1/2 results in reduced nuclear p97 levels, slow growth, and hypersensitivity to chemical inhibition of p97 in the absence and presence of DNA damage, suggesting that FAM104 proteins are critical regulators of nuclear p97 functions.
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