Previously we reported that a process called inter-fork strand annealing (IFSA) causes genomic deletions during the termination of DNA replication when an active replication fork converges on a collapsed fork (Morrow et al., 2017). We also identified the FANCM-related DNA helicase Fml1 as a potential suppressor of IFSA. Here, we confirm that Fml1 does indeed suppress IFSA, and show that this function depends on its catalytic activity and ability to interact with Mhf1-Mhf2 via its C-terminal domain. Finally, a plausible mechanism of IFSA suppression is demonstrated by the finding that Fml1 can catalyse regressed fork restoration in vitro.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Matthew C Whitby
- Matthew C Whitby
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Maria Spies, University of Iowa, United States
© 2019, Wong et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
A single Dcp1-Dcp2 decapping enzyme targets diverse classes of yeast mRNAs for decapping-dependent 5' to 3' decay, but the molecular mechanisms controlling mRNA selectivity by the enzyme remain elusive. Through extensive genetic analyses we reveal that Dcp2 C-terminal domain cis-regulatory elements control decapping enzyme target specificity by orchestrating formation of distinct decapping complexes. Two Upf1-binding motifs direct the decapping enzyme to NMD substrates, a single Edc3-binding motif targets both Edc3 and Dhh1 substrates, and Pat1-binding leucine-rich motifs target Edc3 and Dhh1 substrates under selective conditions. Although it functions as a unique targeting component of specific complexes, Edc3 is a common component of multiple complexes. Scd6 and Xrn1 also have specific binding sites on Dcp2, allowing them to be directly recruited to decapping complexes. Collectively, our results demonstrate that Upf1, Edc3, Scd6, and Pat1 function as regulatory subunits of the holo-decapping enzyme, controlling both its substrate specificity and enzymatic activation.
DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination is confined to the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle partly due to 53BP1 antagonizing DNA end resection in G1 phase and non-cycling quiescent (G0) cells where DSBs are predominately repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Unexpectedly, we uncovered extensive MRE11- and CtIP-dependent DNA end resection at DSBs in G0 murine and human cells. A whole genome CRISPR/Cas9 screen revealed the DNA-dependent kinase (DNA-PK) complex as a key factor in promoting DNA end resection in G0 cells. In agreement, depletion of FBXL12, which promotes ubiquitylation and removal of the KU70/KU80 subunits of DNA-PK from DSBs, promotes even more extensive resection in G0 cells. In contrast, a requirement for DNA-PK in promoting DNA end resection in proliferating cells at the G1 or G2 phase of the cell cycle was not observed. Our findings establish that DNA-PK uniquely promotes DNA end resection in G0, but not in G1 or G2 phase cells, which has important implications for DNA DSB repair in quiescent cells.