(A) Representative dot-plot showing loss of CD8+ MAIT cells, gated on CD161++ and Vα7.2+, in CHI compared to HC. (B) Loss of MAIT cells in peripheral blood in HIV-1+ donors at different HIV-1 stages PHI, CHI, EC (Elite Controllers), and VC (Viraemic controllers). (C) No recovery of MAIT cells post-ART in CHI. (D) No recovery of MAIT cells post-ART in PHI. (E) No recovery of MAIT cells following long-term ART. (F) Higher percentage of MAIT cells in rectal and illeal tissue compared to blood in matched PHI-treated donors. (G) MAIT cell percentages in the rectum compared to terminal ileum of PHI-treated donors. Data points are biological replicates, shown as mean and standard deviation. Spearman’s correlation was used to calculate rho and p value. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001, **** p < 0.0001; two-tailed t-tests.