The use of genetics has been invaluable in defining the complex mechanisms of aging and longevity. Zebrafish, while a prominent model for vertebrate development, have not been used systematically to address questions of how and why we age. In a mutagenesis screen focusing on late developmental phenotypes, we identified a new mutant that displays aging phenotypes at young adult stages. We find that the phenotypes are due to loss-of-function in the non-classical cadherin celsr1a. The premature aging is not associated with increased cellular senescence or telomere length but is a result of a failure to maintain progenitor cell populations. We show that celsr1a is essential for maintenance of stem cell progenitors in late stages. Caloric restriction can ameliorate celsr1a aging phenotypes. These data suggest that celsr1a function helps to mediate stem cell maintenance during maturation and homeostasis of tissues and thus regulates the onset or expressivity of aging phenotypes.
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Matthew Harris
- Matthew Harris
- Matthew Harris
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols of Boston Children's Hospital #3215
- John F Rawls, Duke University School of Medicine, United States
© 2020, Li et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Development of tooth shape is regulated by the enamel knot signalling centre, at least in mammals. Fgf signalling regulates differential proliferation between the enamel knot and adjacent dental epithelia during tooth development, leading to formation of the dental cusp. The presence of an enamel knot in non-mammalian vertebrates is debated given differences in signalling. Here, we show the conservation and restriction of fgf3, fgf10, and shh to the sites of future dental cusps in the shark (Scyliorhinus canicula), whilst also highlighting striking differences between the shark and mouse. We reveal shifts in tooth size, shape, and cusp number following small molecule perturbations of canonical Wnt signalling. Resulting tooth phenotypes mirror observed effects in mammals, where canonical Wnt has been implicated as an upstream regulator of enamel knot signalling. In silico modelling of shark dental morphogenesis demonstrates how subtle changes in activatory and inhibitory signals can alter tooth shape, resembling developmental phenotypes and cusp shapes observed following experimental Wnt perturbation. Our results support the functional conservation of an enamel knot-like signalling centre throughout vertebrates and suggest that varied tooth types from sharks to mammals follow a similar developmental bauplan. Lineage-specific differences in signalling are not sufficient in refuting homology of this signalling centre, which is likely older than teeth themselves.
The tooth shape of sharks and mice are regulated by a similar signaling center despite their teeth having very different geometries.