The eicosanoid lipoxin A4 (LXA4) has emerging roles in lymphocyte-driven diseases. We identified reduced LXA4 levels in posterior segment uveitis patients and investigated the role of LXA4 in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Immunization for EAU with a retinal self-antigen caused selective downregulation of LXA4 in lymph nodes draining the site of immunization, while at the same time amplifying LXA4 in the inflamed target tissue. T cell effector function, migration and glycolytic responses were amplified in LXA4-deficient mice, which correlated with more severe pathology, whereas LXA4 treatment attenuated disease. In vivo deletion or supplementation of LXA4 identified modulation of CC-chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) and sphingosine 1- phosphate receptor-1 (S1PR1) expression and glucose metabolism in CD4+ T cells as potential mechanisms for LXA4 regulation of T cell effector function and trafficking. Our results demonstrate the intrinsic lymph node LXA4 pathway as a significant checkpoint in the development and severity of adaptive immunity.
All data needed to evaluate the conclusions of the paper are present in the main text and Supplementary Materials.
- Karsten Gronert
- Rachel R Caspi
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All experimental procedures were approved by the Animal Care and Use program at University of California, Berkeley, and the National Eye Institute at the National Institutes of Health.(protocol AUP-2016-04-8691-1),
Human subjects: Male and female patients ages 30 - 76 with clinical diagnosis of non-infectious posterior segment uveitis were enrolled in the National Eye Institute protocol number 16-EI-0046. Healthy controls were NIH blood bank donors of both sexes with a similar age range. Serum samples were obtained from male and female patients ages 30 - 76 with clinical diagnosis of non-infectious posterior uveitis, healthy controls were NIH blood bank donors of both sexes with a similar age range whose samples were de-identified and sent to the lab. Patients were enrolled from May 2017 to July 2018 under a clinical research protocol 428 (NCT02656381), approved by the institutional review board of the National Institutes of Health. Informed consent (including publishing language as required by NIH IRB) were obtained from all subjects. The study adhered to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki.
- Lois Smith, Boston Children's Hospital/Harvard Medical School, United States
This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
Dendritic cells (DCs), the key antigen-presenting cells, are primary regulators of immune responses. Transcriptional regulation of DC development had been one of the major research interests in DC biology, however, the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms during DC development remains unclear. Here, we report that Histone deacetylase 3 (Hdac3), an important epigenetic regulator, is highly expressed in pDCs, and its deficiency profoundly impaired the development of pDCs. Significant disturbance of homeostasis of hematopoietic progenitors was also observed in HDAC3-deficient mice, manifested by altered cell numbers of these progenitors and defective differentiation potentials for pDCs. Using the in vitro Flt3L supplemented DC culture system, we further demonstrated that HDAC3 was required for the differentiation of pDCs from progenitors at all developmental stages. Mechanistically, HDAC3 deficiency resulted in enhanced expression of cDC1-associated genes, owing to markedly elevated H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac) at these gene sites in BM pDCs. In contrast, the expression of pDC-associated genes was significantly downregulated, leading to defective pDC differentiation.
T cells are required to clear infection, and T cell motion plays a role in how quickly a T cell finds its target, from initial naive T cell activation by a dendritic cell to interaction with target cells in infected tissue. To better understand how different tissue environments affect T cell motility, we compared multiple features of T cell motion including speed, persistence, turning angle, directionality, and confinement of T cells moving in multiple murine tissues using microscopy. We quantitatively analyzed naive T cell motility within the lymph node and compared motility parameters with activated CD8 T cells moving within the villi of small intestine and lung under different activation conditions. Our motility analysis found that while the speeds and the overall displacement of T cells vary within all tissues analyzed, T cells in all tissues tended to persist at the same speed. Interestingly, we found that T cells in the lung show a marked population of T cells turning at close to 180o, while T cells in lymph nodes and villi do not exhibit this “reversing” movement. T cells in the lung also showed significantly decreased meandering ratios and increased confinement compared to T cells in lymph nodes and villi. These differences in motility patterns led to a decrease in the total volume scanned by T cells in lung compared to T cells in lymph node and villi. These results suggest that the tissue environment in which T cells move can impact the type of motility and ultimately, the efficiency of T cell search for target cells within specialized tissues such as the lung.