Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) produces inflections in the host signaling networks to create a favorable milieu for survival. The virulent Mtb strain, Rv caused double strand breaks (DSBs) whereas the non-virulent Ra strain triggered single stranded DNA generation. The effectors secreted by SecA2 pathway were essential and adequate for the genesis of DSBs. Accumulation of DSBs mediated through Rv activates ATM-Chk2 pathway of DNA damage response (DDR) signaling, resulting in altered cell cycle. Instead of the classical ATM-Chk2 DDR, Mtb gains survival advantage through ATM-Akt signaling cascade. Notably, in vivo infection with Mtb led to sustained DSBs and ATM activation during chronic phase of tuberculosis. Addition of ATM inhibitor enhances isoniazid mediated Mtb clearance in macrophages as well as in murine infection model, suggesting its utility for host directed adjunct therapy. Collectively, data suggests that DSBs inflicted by SecA2 secretome of Mtb provides survival niche through activation of ATM kinase.
- Vinay Kumar Nandicoori
- Savita Lochab
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: The experimental protocol for the animal experiments was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India. The approval (IAEC#409/16 & IAEC#462/18) is as per the guidelines issued by Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA), Government of India.
- Bavesh D Kana, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa
© 2020, Lochab et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)
Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)
Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)
Mutations in the Trypanosoma brucei aquaporin AQP2 are associated with resistance to pentamidine and melarsoprol. We show that TbAQP2 but not TbAQP3 was positively selected for increased pore size from a common ancestor aquaporin. We demonstrate that TbAQP2's unique architecture permits pentamidine permeation through its central pore and show how specific mutations in highly conserved motifs affect drug permeation. Introduction of key TbAQP2 amino acids into TbAQP3 renders the latter permeable to pentamidine. Molecular dynamics demonstrates that permeation by dicationic pentamidine is energetically favourable in TbAQP2, driven by the membrane potential, although aquaporins are normally strictly impermeable for ionic species. We also identify the structural determinants that make pentamidine a permeant although most other diamidine drugs are excluded. Our results have wide-ranging implications for optimising antitrypanosomal drugs and averting cross-resistance. Moreover, these new insights in aquaporin permeation may allow the pharmacological exploitation of other members of this ubiquitous gene family.
Local activation and long-range inhibition are mechanisms conserved in self-organizing systems leading to biological patterns. A number of them involve the production by the developing cell of an inhibitory morphogen, but how this cell becomes immune to self-inhibition is rather unknown. Under combined nitrogen starvation, the multicellular cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 7120 develops nitrogen-fixing heterocysts with a pattern of one heterocyst every 10-12 vegetative cells. Cell differentiation is regulated by HetR which activates the synthesis of its own inhibitory morphogens, diffusion of which establishes the differentiation pattern. Here we show that HetR interacts with HetL at the same interface as PatS, and that this interaction is necessary to suppress inhibition and to differentiate heterocysts. hetL expression is induced under nitrogen-starvation and is activated by HetR, suggesting that HetL provides immunity to the heterocyst. This protective mechanism might be conserved in other differentiating cyanobacteria as HetL homologues are spread across the phylum.