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Mature oligodendrocytes bordering lesions limit demyelination and favor myelin repair via heparan sulfate production

  1. Magali Macchi
  2. Karine Magalon
  3. Céline Zimmer
  4. Elitsa Peeva
  5. Bilal El Waly
  6. Béatrice Brousse
  7. Sarah Jaekel
  8. Kay Grobe
  9. Friedemann Kiefer
  10. Anna Williams
  11. Myriam Cayre
  12. Pascale Durbec  Is a corresponding author
  1. Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IBDM, France
  2. MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Multiple Sclerosis Society Centre for Translational Research, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
  3. Institute of Physiological Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry and Cells-in-Motion Cluster of Excellence (EXC1003-CiM), University of Münster, Germany
  4. Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Germany
Research Article
Cite this article as: eLife 2020;9:e51735 doi: 10.7554/eLife.51735
8 figures, 2 tables and 1 additional file

Figures

Figure 1 with 2 supplements
Ndst1 up-regulation upon LPC-induced demyelination of the corpus callosum.

(A) Scheme showing the site of LPC injection (red point) in the adult corpus callosum and the location of picture shown in C (red rectangle). (B) Ndst1 expression levels (RT-qPCR) in the corpus callosum of healthy or demyelinated mice, contralateral (contra) and ipsilateral (ipsi) to the lesion site showing the Ndst1 up-regulation in the ipsilateral side. Tissues from five mice were pooled in each condition. Error bars represent S.E.M. *p<0.05, non-parametric ANOVA followed by Kruskal-Wallis test (independent two group comparisons). (C–H) Ndst1 in situ hybridization performed at 5 (C-F, n = 4), 8 (G, n = 4) and 14 (H, n = 4) dpi illustrating the Ndst1 expression pattern at different time points of demyelination (C–F) and remyelination (G–H). (D–E) Enlarged views of the CC in (C) corresponding to contralateral side (D) and positive cells at the margin of the demyelinated area at the site of LPC injection (E). CC, corpus callosum; Cx, cortex; SVZ, sub-ventricular zone; V, ventricle (structures are delineated by brown dotted lines, lesion with white dotted lines). Scale bars: 50 µm in F, G and H; 20 µm in D, F, H; 10 µm in D and E Asterisk in G indicates the site of injection since the demyelinated lesion is no longer visible at 14 dpi.

Figure 1—figure supplement 1
Ndst1 is up-regulated by the Olig2+ cell population in close proximity to inflammation sites in corpus callosum, in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model of demyelination.

Ndst1 is not expressed in control brain (A) (n = 2) while it is up-regulated by Olig2+ cells after experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induction (B) (n = 3) in close proximity to lesions in the corpus callosum (C). Enlarged views correspond to boxed region. CC, corpus callosum. Scale bars: 50 µm in A-B; 20 µm in C.

Figure 1—figure supplement 2
PlpGFP mice (n = 3) were used to detect demyelinated lesions (A, B, D, E).

Demyelination was clearly visible in the corpus callosum around the injection site by the lack of GFP fluorescence (B, E). Hoechst staining shows a high cell density (C, F) correlating with the loss of myelin (A, D). CC, corpus callosum, Cx, cortex, V, ventricle, St, Striatum. Scale bars: 100 µm.

N-sulfate-enriched microenvironment forms a belt around the demyelinated lesion.

HS (10E4) labeling on the contra- (A) and ipsi- (B–C) lateral side to the lesion illustrates the generation of a N-sulfated microenvironment surrounding the lesion (delimited by white dashed lines) at five dpi (n = 3). No immunoreactivity was found after Heparinase I treatment (D) thus validating the 10E4 antibody specificity. Scale bars: 20 µm in A, B, D; 10 µm in C. CC, corpus callosum; V, ventricle.

Ndst1 expressing cells around the lesion belong to the oligodendroglial lineage.

(A–B) Ndst1 in situ hybridization successively combined with Olig2 immunostaining (A) or Plp in situ hybridization (B) labeling, two OLG markers, illustrating Ndst1 up-regulation in oligodendroglia lineage cells surrounding the lesion site at five dpi (n = 3). (C–D) Representative images of Ndst1/PDGFRα (C) and Ndst1/CC1 (D) co-labeling illustrating that both OPC (C) and mature OLG (D) up-regulate Ndst1 after demyelination at five dpi (n = 4). Inserts in (A–D) illustrate boxed regions at high magnification. Scale bars: 20 µm.

Figure 3—source data 1

Source data files of quantitative analysis of Ndst1 expressing cells around demyelination at five dpi with co-labeled with Olig2, CC1 and PDGFRα.

https://cdn.elifesciences.org/articles/51735/elife-51735-fig3-data1-v2.xlsx
Figure 4 with 1 supplement
Ndst1 inactivation in oligodendrocyte lineage cells in Olig2-Cre+/-; Ndst1 Flox/Flox mice.

(A–B) Representative images of the lesion site (delineated by white dashed lines) in the corpus callosum of control (A) (n = 2) and mutant (B) (n = 2) mice at eight dpi illustrating the enlargement of the lesion size in mutant mice compared to control mice. Olig2 (in red) is used to label oligodendrocyte lineage cells. In situ hybridization revealed a marked reduction in Ndst1 expression surrounding the lesion site in mice with conditional inactivation in the oligodendroglial lineage cells (B, D, F) compared to control mice (A, C, E). C and D are high magnifications of the squares in A and B respectively. E and F are high magnifications of the squares in C and D respectively. Representative images of 10E4 immunostaining at the lesion site (delineated by white dashed lines. 8dpi) in the corpus callosum of control (G) and mutant (H) mice showing a strong reduction of heparan sulfate labeling in absence of Ndst1 in oligodendrocytes. (I) Quantitative analysis of heparan sulfate labeling area fraction in control and Mutant conditions (n = 4 mice per condition). Error bars represent S.E.M. *p<0.05, non-parametric Mann-Whitney test (independent two group comparisons). CC, corpus callosum, V, ventricle, St, Striatum. Scale bars: 100 µm in A-; 20 µm in C-D. 30 µm in G-H. Source files of the quantitative analyses are available in the Figure 4—source data 1.

Figure 4—figure supplement 1
Myelin content and glial density in adult unlesioned Olig2-Cre+/-; Ndst1 Flox/Flox mice.

(A–B) Representative images of the myelin content in the corpus callosum of control (A) and Olig2-Cre; Ndst1 Flox/Flox (B) mice. (C) Quantitative analysis of the myelin content by double blind scoring of PLP staining in control (n = 3) and mutant mice (n = 3). Results are expressed in percentage of the control. (D–E) Astrocyte labeling by GFAP immunofluorescence in the corpus callosum of control (D) (n = 2) and mutant (n = 3) mouse brain (E). (G–H, J–K) Phenotype of oligodendroglia in the corpus callosum of control (G, J) (n = 5) and mutant (H, K) (n = 5) mice by triple immunostaining for Olig2/PDGFRα/CC1. (F, I) Quantification of mean cell density of astrocytes (GFAP+ cells) (n = 2 and 3) (F) and oligodendroglia (Olig2+ cells) (I) in the corpus callosum of control and mutant mice (n = 5 in each group). (L) Quantitative analysis of the percentage of Olig2+/CC1+ and Olig2+/PDGFRα+ in the corpus callosum of control and mutant mice (n = 3). No significant difference was observed between the two groups using non-parametric Mann-Whitney test (independent two group comparisons). Error bars represent S.E.M. Scale bars: 10 µm. Source files of the quantitative analyses are available in the Figure 4—figure supplement 1—source data 1.

Figure 4—figure supplement 1—source data 1

Source data for graphs in panels C, F, I and L.

https://cdn.elifesciences.org/articles/51735/elife-51735-fig4-figsupp1-data1-v2.xlsx
Deletion of Ndst1 in Olig2+ cells affects lesion size and OPC mobilization after LPC-induced demyelination of the corpus callosum.

(A–B) Representative images of the lesion site (delineated by white dashed lines) in the corpus callosum of control (A) and mutant (B) mice at eight dpi illustrating the enlargement of the lesion size in mutant mice compared to control mice. (C) Quantitative analysis of the lesion size at 4, 8 and 14 dpi (n = 8,9,4 control and n = 9,12,6 mutant mice respectively). (D–E) Oligodendroglia labeled by Olig2 staining within the demyelinated area at eight dpi (E) compared to control mice (D). (F) Olig2 mean cell density in healthy (CTL) or demyelinated control and mutant mice at 4, 8, 14 dpi. (G–H) Mature OLG co-labeled by Olig2/CC1 within the demyelinated lesion at eight dpi in control (G) and mutant (H) mice. (I) Quantification of mean cell density of Olig2+/CC1+ cells within the demyelination lesion in healthy (CTL) or demyelinated control and mutant mice at 4, 8, 14 dpi. (J–K) Ki67+ immunolabeling shows the proliferation status of cells within the lesion 8dpi in control (J) and mutant (K) mouse. (L) Graph represents the cell proliferation (Ki67+ cells) in mutant relative to control mice at 4 and 8 dpi (n = 9,12 control and n = 8,16 mutant mice respectively). (M–N) Co-immunolabelling of Olig2 and Ki67 showing OPC proliferation in control (M) and mutant (N) mouse 8dpi. (I) Quantification of proliferating OPC (Ki67+/olig2+ cells) in lesion sites at 4 and 8 dpi (n = 6,11 control and n = 7,13 mutant mice respectively). Error bars represent S.E.M. *p<0.05, ***p<0.001, non-parametric Mann-Whitney test (independent two group comparisons). Scale bars: 50 µm in A, B, D, E and 10 µm in, G, H, J, K, M and N. Source files of quantitative analyses are available in the Figure 4—source data 1.

Figure 5—source data 1

Source data for graphs in panels C, F, I, L, and O.

https://cdn.elifesciences.org/articles/51735/elife-51735-fig5-data1-v2.xlsx
Effect of Ndst1 deletion on microglia/macrophage activation.

(A–B) CD68+/Ki67+ co-immunolabeling shows the proliferation status of activated microglia/macrophages. (C) Quantification of proliferating microglia/macrophages (Ki67+/CD68+ cells) in lesion sites at 4 and 8 dpi (n = 3,7 control and n = 3,7 mutant mice respectively). Iba1 (D–E) and CD68 immunolabeling (F–G) shows the increase in rhomboid-polarized microglia/macrophages in the demyelinated area of mutant mice at eight dpi. (H) Quantification of the ratio of rhomboid/branched CD68+ cells in lesion sites at 4 and 8 dpi (n = 3,4 control and n = 3,6 mutant mice respectively) showing a switch of the microglia/macrophage polarization in favor of the rhomboid phenotype in mutant mice at eight dpi. (I–J) Cox2 immunolabeling shows an increase in this M1 phenotype marker at 8dpi in mutant mice. (K) Quantification of Cox2+ cells in lesion sites at 8dpi (n = 4 control and n = 5 mutant mice). Error bars represent S.E.M. *p≤0.05, non-parametric Mann-Whitney test (independent two group comparisons). Scale bars: 50 µm in I-J and 10 µm in A-B, D-E, F-G. Source file of quantitative analyses are available in the Figure 5—source data 1.

AP-tagged Shh protein binds to HS concentrated around LPC-induced lesions in the corpus callosum.

Representative images of adjacent serial coronal sections derived from control mice 4 days after LPC injection and incubated with the fusion proteins AP-Shh-WT (A–B’) or AP-Shh-CW in which the CW sequence responsible for HS binding is absent (C–D) (n = 4). The lesion site is delineated by dashed lines. Staining using B-gal is clearly visible around the lesion after AP-Shh incubation (B–B’), while no staining is observed when the AP-Shh-CW deleted protein is used (D). These data show that Shh is concentrated around the lesion and that this distribution depends on the integrity of the HS binding motif. (E) Quantification of Ptch1 expression at 8dpi in control and mutant mice reported in number of dots per cell (n = 4 control and n = 5 mutant mice, p=0.07). (F–G) Illustration of Ptch1 expression in peri-lesional areas in control (F) and mutant (G) mice after labeling as detected by RNAscope technology. CC, corpus callosum; Cx, cortex. Scale bars: 100 µm in A-D. 10 µm in F and G. Source file of quantitative analysis is available in the Figure 6—source data 1.

Figure 8 with 2 supplements
NDST1 is highly expressed in MS tissue and NDST1+OLIG2+ cell density negatively correlates with lesion size.

(A–B) Representative images of NDST1 staining in control (A) and MS (B) WM. (C) Quantification of NDST1 labeling shows a significant over-expression of NDST1 in MS lesions (n = 9) compared to control tissue (n = 4) (Kruskal-Wallis test, H = 13.09, n = 4,9,9, p<0.01, means plus standard deviation). The colors represent paired samples from the same patients. (D–G) Representative images of immunostaining against NDST1 successively co-labeled with OLIG2+ for oligodendroglia (D), GFAP+ for astrocytes (E), NEUN+ for neurons (F), and IBA1+ for microglia/macrophages (G). (H) Quantification of the proportions of different NDST1+ cell types in normal appearing WM and various MS lesions shows that NDST1 expressing cells are mainly oligodendroglia. (I) The proportion of OLIG2+ cells which is NDST1+ is significantly increased in active lesions compared to control (Kruskal-Wallis test, H = 13.92, n = 7,21,4,14,14 p<0.05). Overall, the majority of OLIG2+ cells are NDST1+ in MS lesions and NAWM while this is not true in control brain tissue. (J) The number of oligodendroglia expressing NDST1 is inversely correlated to lesion size. (K) NDST1+ cell numbers positively correlate with the remyelination score assigned to each patient, summing all lesions within blocks from the same MS patients (see Materials and methods). NAWM, normal appearing white matter; RM, remyelinated lesion; A, active lesion; CA, chronic active lesion; CI, chronic inactive lesion. Scale bars represent 50 µm (A–B) or 10 µm (D–G). Source files of quantitative analyses are available in the Figure 7—source data 1.

Figure 8—source data 1

Source data for graphs in panels C, I, J and K.

https://cdn.elifesciences.org/articles/51735/elife-51735-fig8-data1-v2.xlsx
Figure 8—figure supplement 1
Comparisons of Ndst1 expression levels in control and MS brain tissue from all nuclei (A), or just oligodendroglia (B) showing a tendency to increased levels in MS samples.

Data extracted from snRNA seq (Carrasco et al., 2005).

Figure 8—figure supplement 2
NDST1 staining is specific and no lesion belt effect is observed in human brain.

(A) Staining with NDST1 antibody in MS WM (B) There is no staining of MS WM with NDST1 antibody in in the presence of human recombinant NDST1. (C) LFB stain of MS tissue with the lesion delineated in red. (D) Representative NDST1+ staining in lesion (delineated with red line) shows uniform NDST1+ cell distribution. Scale bars: 100 µm.

Tables

Table 1
Classification and characteristic of human post-mortem samples.
PatientSexAge (years)MS typeDisease duration (years)Time to post mortem (h)Number of lesionsActiveChronic activeChronic inactiveRemyeli-nating
MSMS100M46SP8760042
MS121F49SP142421010
MS122M44SP101621100
MS136M40SP91091035
MS154F34SP211242011
MS176M37PP271270025
MS187F57SP271340004
MS207F46SP251080332
MS230F42SP193142002
ControlCO14M64--26-----
CO25M35--22-----
CO28F60--13-----
CO39M82--21-----
Total46741421
Key resources table
Reagent type
(species) or resource
DesignationSource or referenceIdentifiersAdditional
information
Genetic reagent (M. musculus)Olig2CrePMID:18046410B6D2F1J/Rj genetic background
Genetic reagent (M. musculus)Ndst1flox/floxPMID:16020517Dr. Kay Grobe (University of Münster, Münster, Germany)
Genetic reagent (M. musculus)PlpgfpPMID:15906234
PMID:11756747
Dr. Bernard Zalc (University of Sorbonne, Paris, France)
Biological sample (H. sapiens)Brain tissue from 9 MS patientsUK Multiple Sclerosis Tissue Bank
(MREC/02/2/39)
Postmortem unfixed frozen
Biological sample
(H. sapiens)
Brain tissue from 4 Control patientsUK Multiple Sclerosis Tissue Bank
(MREC/02/2/39)
Postmortem unfixed frozen
Cell line (H. sapiens)293T HEKATCCCRL3216
Transfected construct (M. musculus)pWiz-AP-SHHPMID:16020517Production of AP-tagged SHH recombinant protein
Transfected construct (M. musculus)pWiz-AP-SHH-CWdeletedPMID:11959830Production of AP-tagged deleted SHH recombinant protein
AntibodyRabbit polyclonal anti-OLIG2MilliporeAB9610IF (1/1000)
AntibodyRabbit polyclonal anti-OLIG2Sigma-AldrichHPA003254IF (1/100)
AntibodyMouse monoclonal anti-APC (clone CC1)CalbiochemOP-80IF (1/400)
AntibodyRat monoclonal anti-PDGFRa (clone APA5)MilliporeCBL1366IF (1/250)
AntibodyMouse monoclonal anti-MBPMilliporeMAB384IF (1/500)
AntibodyMouse monoclonal anti-Ki67BD Pharmingen556003IF (1/500)
AntibodyRabbit polyclonal anti-Caspase 3Cell Signalling9661IF (1/200)
AntibodyRabbit polyclonal anti-GFAPDakoZ0334IF (1/400)
AntibodyGoat polyclonal anti-IBA1AbcamAb5076IF (1/500)
AntibodyRabbit polyclonal anti-IBA1Wako Chemicals019–19741IF (1/500)
AntibodyRat monoclonal
Anti-CD68
AbcamAb53444IF (1/400)
AntibodyRabbit polyclonal anti-COX2AbcamAb15191IF (1/400)
AntibodyMouse monoclonal IgM anti-N-sulfated motifs on HS chains (clone10E4)Amsbio370255–1IF (1/500)
AntibodyMouse monoclonal anti-NDST1Abcamab55296IF (1/50)
AntibodyRabbit polyclonal anti-NeuNAbcamAb104225IF (1/500)
Sequence-based reagent Ndst1_FEurofins GenomicsRT-qPCR primersgctggacaagatcatcaatgg
Sequence-based reagent Ndst1_REurofins GenomicsRT-qPCR primersacacagtacttctacgactatcc
Sequence-based reagentGapdh_FEurofins GenomicsRT-qPCR primersgggttcctataaatacggactgc
Sequence-based reagentGapdh_REurofins GenomicsRT-qPCR primersctggcactgcacaagaagat
Sequence-based reagentplp/dm20PMID:9373029Probe for ISH
Sequence-based reagentNdst1PMID:16020517Probe for ISH
Sequence-based reagentPtch1Advanced Cell Diagnostics402811-C2Probe for RNAScope
Peptide, Recombinant ProteinHuman NDST1Abcamab116875
Commercial assay or kitRNAscope Multiplex Fluorescent kitAdvanced Cell Diagnostics323133
Commercial assay or kitDAB Peroxidase (HRP) Substrate Kit (with Nickel)Vector LaboratoriesSK-4100
Commercial assay or kitVECTOR Blue AP Substrate KitVector LaboratoriesSK-5300
Commercial assay or kitImmPRESS-AP Anti-Rabbit IgG Polymer Detection KitVector LaboratoriesMP-5401
Commercial assay or kitImmPRESS HRP Anti-Mouse IgG Polymer Detection KitVector LaboratoriesMP-7402
Chemical compound, drugLysolecithinSigma-Aldrich-MerckL1381
Chemical compound, drugHeparinaseAmsbio100700
Chemical compound, drugLipofectamine
2000
Invitrogen11668–030
Chemical compound, drugVector BloxallVector LaboratoriesSP-6000
Software, algorithmImageJhttps://imagej.nih.gov/ij/
Software, algorithmZen two liteZeiss
Software, algorithmGraphPad Prismhttps://graphpad.com

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