Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematological malignancy with abnormal progenitor self-renewal and defective white blood cell differentiation. Its pathogenesis comprises subversion of transcriptional regulation, through mutation and by hijacking normal chromatin regulation. Kat2a is a histone acetyltransferase central to promoter activity, that we recently associated with stability of pluripotency networks, and identified as a genetic vulnerability in AML. Through combined chromatin profiling and single-cell transcriptomics of a conditional knockout mouse, we demonstrate that Kat2a contributes to leukemia propagation through preservation of leukemia stem-like cells. Kat2a loss impacts transcription factor binding and reduces transcriptional burst frequency in a subset of gene promoters, generating enhanced variability of transcript levels. Destabilization of target programs shifts leukemia cell fate out of self-renewal into differentiation. We propose that control of transcriptional variability is central to leukemia stem-like cell propagation, and establish a paradigm exploitable in different tumors and distinct stages of cancer evolution.
All single-cell RNAseq data and ChIPseq data were deposited in GEO (SuperSeries GSE118769).
Loss of Kat2a enhances transcriptional noise and depletes acute myeloid leukemia stem-like cellsNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE118769.
- Cristina Pina
- Shikha Gupta
- Liliana Arede
- Cristina Pina
- Keti Zeka
- Cristina Pina
- Sudhakaran Prabakaran
- Keti Zeka
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: Mice were kept in an SPF animal facility, and all experimental work was carried out under UK Home Office regulations. Animal research was regulated under the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 Amendment Regulations 2012 following ethical review by the University of Cambridge Animal Welfare and Ethical Review Body (AWERB).
- Jian Xu, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, United States
© 2020, Domingues et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Chemical manipulation of estrogen receptor alpha ligand binding domain structural mobility tunes receptor lifetime and influences breast cancer therapeutic activities. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) extend ERα cellular lifetime/accumulation. They are antagonists in the breast but agonists in the uterine epithelium and/or in bone. Selective estrogen receptor degraders/downregulators (SERDs) reduce ERα cellular lifetime/accumulation and are pure antagonists. Activating somatic ESR1 mutations Y537S and D538G enable resistance to first-line endocrine therapies. SERDs have shown significant activities in ESR1 mutant setting while few SERMs have been studied. To understand whether chemical manipulation of ERα cellular lifetime and accumulation influences antagonistic activity, we studied a series of methylpyrollidine lasofoxifene derivatives that maintained the drug's antagonistic activities while uniquely tuning ERα cellular accumulation. These molecules were examined alongside a panel of antiestrogens in live cell assays of ERα cellular accumulation, lifetime, SUMOylation, and transcriptional antagonism. High-resolution x-ray crystal structures of WT and Y537S ERα ligand binding domain in complex with the methylated lasofoxifene derivatives or representative SERMs and SERDs show that molecules that favor a highly buried helix 12 antagonist conformation achieve the greatest transcriptional suppression activities in breast cancer cells harboring WT/Y537S ESR1. Together these results show that chemical reduction of ERα cellular lifetime is not necessarily the most crucial parameter for transcriptional antagonism in ESR1 mutated breast cancer cells. Importantly, our studies show how small chemical differences within a scaffold series can provide compounds with similar antagonistic activities, but with greatly different effects of the cellular lifetime of the ERα, which is crucial for achieving desired SERM or SERD profiles.
Tyrosine phosphorylation, orchestrated by tyrosine kinases and phosphatases, modulates a multi-layered signaling network in a time- and space-dependent manner. Dysregulation of this post-translational modification is inevitably associated with pathological diseases. Our previous work has demonstrated that non-receptor tyrosine kinase FER is upregulated in ovarian cancer, knocking down which attenuates metastatic phenotypes. However, due to the limited number of known substrates in the ovarian cancer context, the molecular basis for its pro-proliferation activity remains enigmatic. Here, we employed mass spectrometry and biochemical approaches to identify insulin receptor substrate 4 (IRS4) as a novel substrate of FER. FER engaged its kinase domain to associate with the PH and PTB domains of IRS4. Using a proximity-based tagging system in ovarian carcinoma-derived OVCAR-5 cells, we determined that FER-mediated phosphorylation of Tyr779 enables IRS4 to recruit PIK3R2/p85β, the regulatory subunit of PI3K, and activate the PI3K-AKT pathway. Rescuing IRS4-null ovarian tumor cells with phosphorylation-defective mutant, but not WT IRS4 delayed ovarian tumor cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Overall, we revealed a kinase-substrate mode between FER and IRS4, and the pharmacological inhibition of FER kinase may be beneficial for ovarian cancer patients with PI3K-AKT hyperactivation.