The ClpXP degradation machine consists of a hexameric AAA+ unfoldase (ClpX) and a pair of heptameric serine protease rings (ClpP) that unfold, translocate, and subsequently degrade client proteins. ClpXP is an important target for drug development against infectious diseases. Although structures are available for isolated ClpX and ClpP rings, it remains unknown how symmetry mismatched ClpX and ClpP work in tandem for processive substrate translocation into the ClpP proteolytic chamber. Here we present cryo-EM structures of the substrate-bound ClpXP complex from Neisseria meningitidis at 2.3 to 3.3 Å resolution. The structures allow development of a model in which the sequential hydrolysis of ATP is coupled to motions of ClpX loops that lead to directional substrate translocation and ClpX rotation relative to ClpP. Our data add to the growing body of evidence that AAA+ molecular machines generate translocating forces by a common mechanism.
CryoEM maps and models have been deposited in the EMDB and PDB.
Maps NmClpXP Conformation AProtein Data Bank, 6VFS.
Maps NmClpXP Conformation BProtein Data Bank, 6VFX.
Maps NmClpXP Conformation AElectron Microscopy Data Bank, EMD-21187.
Maps NmClpXP Conformation BElectron Microscopy Data Bank, EMD-21194.
Maps NmClpXP D7Electron Microscopy Data Bank, EMD-21195.
Maps Apo-NmClpPElectron Microscopy Data Bank, EMD-21196.
- Lewis E Kay
- John L Rubinstein
- Walid A Houry
- Zev A Ripstein
- Siavash Vahidi
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Axel T Brunger, Stanford University, United States
© 2020, Ripstein et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, histidine, tryptophan, and cofactors NAD and NADP. Abnormal regulation of PRPP synthase (PRPS) is associated with human disorders, including Arts syndrome, retinal dystrophy, and gouty arthritis. Recent studies have demonstrated that PRPS can form filamentous cytoophidia in eukaryotes. Here, we show that PRPS forms cytoophidia in prokaryotes both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we solve two distinct filament structures of E. coli PRPS at near-atomic resolution using Cryo-EM. The formation of the two types of filaments is controlled by the binding of different ligands. One filament type is resistant to allosteric inhibition. The structural comparison reveals conformational changes of a regulatory flexible loop, which may regulate the binding of the allosteric inhibitor and the substrate ATP. A noncanonical allosteric AMP/ADP binding site is identified to stabilize the conformation of the regulatory flexible loop. Our findings not only explore a new mechanism of PRPS regulation with structural basis, but also propose an additional layer of cell metabolism through PRPS filamentation.
Clamp loaders place circular sliding clamp proteins onto DNA so that clamp-binding partner proteins can synthesize, scan, and repair the genome. DNA with nicks or small single-stranded gaps are common clamp-loading targets in DNA repair, yet these substrates would be sterically blocked given the known mechanism for binding of primer-template DNA. Here, we report the discovery of a second DNA binding site in the yeast clamp loader Replication Factor C (RFC) that aids in binding to nicked or gapped DNA. This DNA binding site is on the external surface and is only accessible in the open conformation of RFC. Initial DNA binding at this site thus provides access to the primary DNA binding site in the central chamber. Furthermore, we identify that this site can partially unwind DNA to create an extended single-stranded gap for DNA binding in RFC's central chamber and subsequent ATPase activation. Finally, we show that deletion of the BRCT domain, a major component of the external DNA binding site, results in defective yeast growth in the presence of DNA damage where nicked or gapped DNA intermediates occur. We propose that RFC’s external DNA binding site acts to enhance DNA binding and clamp loading, particularly at DNA architectures typically found in DNA repair.