Human patients carrying PAPP‐A2 inactivating mutations have low bone mineral density. The underlying mechanisms for this reduced calcification are poorly understood. Using a zebrafish model, we report that Papp-aa regulates bone calcification by promoting Ca2+-transporting epithelial cell (ionocyte) quiescence-proliferation transition. Ionocytes, which are normally quiescent, re-enter the cell cycle under low [Ca2+] stress. Genetic deletion of Papp-aa, but not the closely related Papp-ab, abolished ionocyte proliferation and reduced calcified bone mass. Loss of Papp-aa expression or activity resulted in diminished IGF1 receptor-Akt-Tor signaling in ionocytes. Under low Ca2+ stress, Papp-aa cleaved Igfbp5a. Under normal conditions, however, Papp-aa proteinase activity was suppressed and IGFs were sequestered in the IGF/Igfbp complex. Pharmacological disruption of the IGF/Igfbp complex or adding free IGF1 activated IGF signaling and promoted ionocyte proliferation. These findings suggest that Papp-aa-mediated local Igfbp5a cleavage functions as a [Ca2+]-regulated molecular switch linking IGF signaling to bone calcification by stimulating epithelial cell quiescence-proliferation transition under low Ca2+ stress.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Cunming Duan
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All experiments were conducted in accordance with the guidelines approved by the Institutional Committee on the Use and Care of Animals, University of Michigan and the Danish The Animal Experiments Inspectorate (permit numbers 2017-15-0201-01369 and 2017-15-0202-00098).
- Cheryl Ackert-Bicknell, University of Colorado, United States
© 2020, Liu et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Wolfram syndrome 1 (WS1) is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene leading to a wide spectrum of clinical dysfunctions, among which blindness, diabetes, and neurological deficits are the most prominent. WFS1 encodes for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident transmembrane protein wolframin with multiple functions in ER processes. However, the WFS1-dependent etiopathology in retinal cells is unknown. Herein, we showed that Wfs1 mutant mice developed early retinal electrophysiological impairments followed by marked visual loss. Interestingly, axons and myelin disruption in the optic nerve preceded the degeneration of the retinal ganglion cell bodies in the retina. Transcriptomics at pre-degenerative stage revealed the STAT3-dependent activation of proinflammatory glial markers with reduction of the homeostatic and pro-survival factors glutamine synthetase and BDNF. Furthermore, label-free comparative proteomics identified a significant reduction of the monocarboxylate transport isoform 1 (MCT1) and its partner basigin that are highly enriched on retinal glia and myelin-forming oligodendrocytes in optic nerve together with wolframin. Loss of MCT1 caused a failure in lactate transfer from glial to neuronal cell bodies and axons leading to a chronic hypometabolic state. Thus, this bioenergetic impairment is occurring concurrently both within the axonal regions and cell bodies of the retinal ganglion cells, selectively endangering their survival while impacting less on other retinal cells. This metabolic dysfunction occurs months before the frank RGC degeneration suggesting an extended time-window for intervening with new therapeutic strategies focused on boosting retinal and optic nerve bioenergetics in WS1.
The tuberal hypothalamus controls life-supporting homeostatic processes, but despite its fundamental role, the cells and signalling pathways that specify this unique region of the CNS in embryogenesis are poorly characterised. Here we combine experimental and bioinformatic approaches in the embryonic chick to show that the tuberal hypothalamus is progressively generated from hypothalamic floor plate-like cells. Fate-mapping studies show that a stream of tuberal progenitors develops in the anterior-ventral neural tube as a wave of neuroepithelial-derived BMP signalling sweeps from anterior to posterior through the hypothalamic floor plate. As later-specified posterior tuberal progenitors are generated, early-specified anterior tuberal progenitors become progressively more distant from these BMP signals and differentiate into tuberal neurogenic cells. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments in vivo and ex vivo show that BMP signalling initiates tuberal progenitor specification, but must be eliminated for these to progress to anterior neurogenic progenitors. ScRNA-Seq profiling shows that tuberal progenitors that are specified after the major period of anterior tuberal specification begin to upregulate genes that characterise radial glial cells. This study provides an integrated account of the development of the tuberal hypothalamus.